How to get started with building an fpga mining device ...

A Software Engineer's Explanation of Server Ticks/FPS, the Message Pump, and Server Meshing

Since people liked my last post about the SQ42 report, I thought I would do another about the recent comment about server ticks https://robertsspaceindustries.com/spectrum/community/SC/forum/50259/thread/end-goal-server-tick-rate/2872293
To understand how this works, you must first understand the Message Pump. This is basically the heart beat of an application. It is a loop from which there is no escape, so long as the application runs. All applications have an "entry point" that initially gets called. If you've ever taken Computer Science 101, it would be your "main" function. For a console application, you enter main, it does some things, and then when it leaves main, the application closes. In an application with a graphical user interface, that loop has to regularly call a Render or Draw function that draws the UI. This happens on the Render Thread. In a regular client application your Message Pump will look something like this:
while(IsApplicationRunning) { //loop while application is meant to run HandleKeyboardInputs(); //check to see if any keyboard events have occured HandleMouseInputs(); //check to see if any mouse events have occurred, hittest children HandleSizeChanges(); //check if the window has resized, resize children to fit Render(); //recursively render all child controls } 
Each function call within the loop will call entire hierarchies of functionality. This same basic principal applies to a server as well. I am using my imagination, as I have never audited the Star Citizen codebase, but its message pump would look something like
while(IsServerOnline) { //loop while server is meant to run HandleOrbitalRotation(); //update position of all planets around the sun HandleNPCRoutines(); //update position/animations of all NPCs SynchronizePlayerLocations(); //receive player location packets and update //internal locations CheckForIssues(); //check all object positions and ensure no conflicts UpdatePlayerLocations(); //send new location data of all objects to connected //players } 
This is only the most basic sort of functionality, that doesn't factor in things like Server Object Container Streaming or Meshing or object persistence.
Each iteration of the Message Pump is a frame. These frames are calculated by having a Stopwatch and taking averages of how long it takes each frame to complete across a defined sample size. If you have a target frame rate, like 30fps for instance, subroutines can be prioritized to try to either run on the current frame, or be skipped, based on how much load is put on the servers.
My current understanding, based on Star Citizen's published material, is that there is presently one server for every 50 players, and that server handles an entire star system. Having one server for every 50 players right now is fine, and that number can hopefully be increased as optimizations happen within the code.
The important part is modifying the server code so that they can separate different Object Containers to separate physical server hardware. This would allow them to, for instance, have one server, with its own message pump, handle Port Olisar, for up to 50 players. For v0 of server meshing, I would imagine that, when the 51st player comes to PO, they would have to spin up a new server for that person of PO, and they would be on their own. When the player count goes back below 50, that server can go back to sleep and is available to be repurposed for whatever other area needs it, dynamically. As players leave PO, and go into space, each part of space could have dedicated servers for that area. The same goes for planets, or cities. Each would be its own Object Container, each Object Container could contain smaller Object Containers, so that as players move around, servers would seamlessly spin up or down to host content for the players. Technically, one server could even host multiple separate Object Containers if they both have low player counts.
This would go a very long way towards making the universe feel full and connected. To start out with, you might still only find a maximum of 50 people on Daymar, but you might also find 50 people on Yela, or ArcCorp. Each place could be full, with the game client switching servers when going to different areas. Server Object Container Streaming is what enables this. It is just a matter of handling the trade off between servers, and keeping everything synchronized. I recognize that the posts that CIG makes on the subject are often hard to understand for laymen, but these posts make me feel confident that they are making progress and heading in a meaningful direction toward the end goal of having us seamlessly switch between servers on the fly.
One thing that I have no heard anything about is the transition towards specialized physical hardware for handling some of these large-scale server-side operations. If they are using regular CPU/GPU operations, performance could be *vastly* improved by creating FPGAs or ASICs that could perform calculations with greater alacrity than a GPU could ever hope to. This is the type of hardware used in medical devices, data centers, or bitcoin mining.
I wrote this up purely to help people understand some aspects of software engineer, and no part of it is meant to be so specific that you should interpret it to be exactly how something works. I am trying to provide a high level, easy to understand, idea of some very complex concepts.
If there is any other part of development that you would like me to comment on feel free to @ me with VerdantNonsense :) Stay safe out there.
submitted by VerdantNonsense to starcitizen [link] [comments]

I earned about 4000% more btc with my android tablet than with a $250 ASIC mini rig setup using GekkoScience Newpac USB miners!

Requirements:
1.) Android Device with access to Google Play Store. *I haven't tried yet but you may be able to use tis on Android TV devces as well by sideloading. If anyone has success before I try, let me know! -Note, I did this with a Samsung Galaxy Tab S6 so its a newer more powerful device. If your android is older, your profts will most likely be less than what I earned but to give a projected range I also tested on my Raspberry Pi 4 running a custom LineageOS rom that doesn't allow the OS to make full use of the Pi's specs and I still got 500 h/s on that with Cloud boost, so about 60% of what my Tab 6 with MUCH Higher Specs does.
**Hey guys. Before I get started i just wanted to be clear about one thing. Yes I have seen those scammy posts sharing "miracle" boosts and fixes. I have a hard time believing stuff online anymore. But this is honestly real. Ill attach photos and explain the whole story and process below. Thanks for taking the time to read and feel free to share any thoughts, concerns, tips, etc*
So last week I finally got started with my first mini rig type mining build. I started getting into crypto about a year ago and it has taken me a long time to even grasp half of the projects out there but its been fun thus far! Anyways my rig was 2 GekkoScience Newpac USB miners, a Moonlander USB miner to pair with an FPGA i already had mining, a 10 port 60W 3.0 USB hub and 2 usb fans. The Newpacs actually are hashing at a combined 280 g/s which is actually better than their reported max hash rate when overclocked. Pleasant surpise and they are simple!! I just wanted to get a moonlander because my fpga already mines on Odocrypt for DGB and I just wanted to experience Scrypt mining and help build the DGB project. The Newpacs are mining BTC though.
After I got everything up and running i checked my payout daily average after 1 week. I averaged .01 a day TOTAL between all three miners with them all perforing ABOVE SPEC!!! I had done research so i knew I wouldnt earn much. More than anything i just wanted to learn. But still. I was kinda surprised in a negative way. Yesterday I actually earned less than .01 Frustrated I went back to scouring the web for new ideas. About a year ago, when II was starting, I saw an app on my iphone called CryptoBrowser that claimed to mine btc on your phone without actually using phone resources using a method of cloud mining. I tried it for a week and quit because I earned like .03 after a ton of use and seemed scammy. Plus my iphone actually would get very hot when doing this so I quit using it as it seemed like a possible scam with all the cryptonight browser mining hacks and malware out there.
Anyways I was on my Galaxy Tab S6 and saw that CryptoBrowser released a "PRO" edition for 3.99 on Google Play. I bought it for Sh*ts and giggles and booted it up. It came with what they called "Cloud Boost" Essentially this is a button you press and it multiplys the estimated hashrate that it gives you device by the number shown on the boost button. (With the purchase of PRO you get one free x10 boost. You can purchase additional boosts to use with other android devices but those are actually pretty pricy. Another x10 boost was like $25 if i remember correctly).
I played with it for about an hour to see if it actually worked like it said it would this time. To my surprise, as i was browsing, my device didnt increase in temperature AT ALL!!!!! I checked my tast manager to confirm and it was indeed true, my memory and usage barely went up. it was giving me an estimated range of 80-105 on the hashrate. Once i pushed the x10 boost button, that went to 800-1150 h/s. I switched my screen to not go to sleep, plugged it to the charge and let it run on the browser page, hashing. When you push the boost button, it runs for 3 hours at the boosted speeds. After that it goes back to normal but if you press the button again, it boosts everything again. There is no limit to how many times you use it. After checking what I earned after 24 hours, I HAD MADE .40 in BTC!!!!! I JUST EARNED OVER 4000% MORE THAN MY $280 MINING RIG EARNED ME!!!! I was blown away. Maybe this was a fluke? I did it again next day. Every 3 hours or so I would push the button again but thats all. Sure enough, .35 that day. Also, it realy BTC. I requested a payout and although it took like 12 hours for them to send me an email stating they had just sent it, I actually did recieve the state amount of BTC within 24 hours in my personal wallet. The fees to send are SUPER LOW!. Like .01
Below I will list the steps I took, along with an explanation of thier "Mining" process on Androids. Reminder, this ONLY WORKS ON ANDROIDS. Also DO NOT use cryptobrowser on a physcal laptop or desktop. I ran it on an old laptop for three days last year and it fried it. It does actually use your hardware on those platforms to mine and it is not efficnet at all as I suspect they prob steal over half of your power for themselves using the REAL RandomX protocol via browser mining which is EXTREMELY INEFFICIENT DONT TRY IT!!
-----How To Do This Yourself:
Cryptotab Browser states the program works on Android devices by estimating what it thinks the hashrate would be for your device specs and siimulates what you would mine in a remote server however you still earn that estimated coin amount. It is not a SHA-256 process or coin that they say is mining, rather it is XMR and they swap that and pay it out to you in BTC Bitcoin. However I know damn well my Tab S6 doesnt hash 80-105 h/s on RandomX because I have done it with a moodified XMRig module i ported to Android. I got 5 h/s a sec if I was getting any hashes at all. But thats besides the point as I still was making money.
Now, when you press that cloud boost button it immediately boosts that hash rate it estimates by the number on the cloud boost. As stated above, you can purchase more boosts and gift them or use them on extra android devices that you may have. Again, they are pricey so I'm not doing that plus it would just mean that I have another device that I have to leave on and open. The boosts come in x2, x4, x6, x8 and x10 variants. Again, they have unlimited uses.
Here is the link to grab yourself CryptoBrowser Pro from CryptoTab. This IS A REFERRAL LINK! This is where I benefit from doing tis tutorial. Like i said, I want to be transparent as this is not a scam but I'm also not doing this out of the love of my heart. Their referral system works in that people that use the donwload the app using your link are your stage 1 referrals. Anytime they are mining, you earn a 15% bonus. So say they mine $.30 one day. You would get paid out an additional $.045 in your own balance (it does not come out of the referred user balance fyi so no worries). Then lets say that referred miner also gets their own referrals. I would get a 10% bonus on whatever THOSE people mine. This goes on and on for like 8 tiers. Each tier the bonus percntage essential halves. So again, I stand to benefit from this but it also is stupid to not make this visible as its WAY CHEAPER, EASIER AND MORE PROFITABLE TO GET BTC USING THIS METHOD THAN IT IS USING ASICS!! THIS EARNS ALMOST AS MUCH BTC AS AN ANTMINER S7 DOES RUNNING 24/7 ONLY WITHOUT THE HUGE ELLECTRICTY BILL AND COSTS!!!!)
Thats it. Again, if you have concerns, let me know or if you have suggestions, other tips, etc... mention those as well!!!
https://cryptotabbrowser.com/8557319
Links to Picture Proof http://imgur.com/gallery/P13bEsB
submitted by Afraid_Balance to earnbitcoin [link] [comments]

GPU Mining Crash Course - START HERE!

Welcome All to the GPUMining Crash Course!
With the increase in prices in cryptocurrency, a lot of people are getting back into mining and a lot of people are brand new to the concept overall. So, I quickly wrote this crash course to help you understand what to expect and how to successfully mine your first cryptocurrency. This crash course isn't gonna have all of the fluff you'd see in a normal publication. This is just everything you need to know to get up and running on your first cryptocurrency mining rig.

What is cryptocurrency mining?

One of the main things about cryptocurrencies is that they are "decentralized". Sounds great, but WTF does that even mean? Well, the easiest way to explain it is...
You know how if you want to send your friend/family money digitally, you can do so through your bank. Your bank likely takes a transaction fee and in a few days they will transfer the money. Since cryptocurrencies are decentralized, they don't have a bank or organization to fulfill the transfer of money. Instead, they outsource the computing power of their cryptocurrency network to miners (soon to be you). These miners are verifying transactions, securing the blockchain, and powering the cryptocurrency's specific network among other things. As an incentive, the miners collect transaction fees on the transactions that they verify and collect block rewards while new currency is still being introduced into the ecosystem.

What kind of rig should I build?

You can mine cryptocurrencies using your CPU, GPU, FPGA, or ASIC, but this is a GPU Mining subreddit, so I will cater this to GPUs.
For building a great all-around GPU rig, there are two models of GPUs that I'd recommend:
Both of these GPUs have solid hashrates across most mining algorithms and for a decent price! You should be able to find both of these kinds of GPUs used for around $200-$250 each, which is a great price if you know what happened during the last mining craze! ($200 GPUs were out of stock everywhere and people were reselling them for $600+ each)
There are also plenty of great AMD GPUs for mining, but I've worked mostly with Nvidia so that's why both of my recommendations are Nvidia and not AMD.
Other parts to your rig that you'll need are listed below. Most of these can be pieces of crap and are just needed to make the rig actually run, but the one spot you DON'T want to cheap out on is the power supply unit. A decent power supply unit will keep your home from burning down while also keeping your rigs up and running smoothly. Here are my recommendations:

She's built, now what?

Now you need to do a few things. I am a Windows miner, so I will be speaking to Windows here:
  1. Update Windows - Do all of the updates. Just do it.
  2. Update Drivers - Go to the EVGA website and download GeForce experience. It will keep your GPU drivers up to date.
  3. Go to Windows Device Manager and make sure all of your GPUs show up under "Display Adapters". If it is there, but it isn't showing the Name/Model of the GPU as the name, right click it and select "Update Driver". This should fix it.
Assuming you've done all of this, you're ready to download a mining application.

Mining Software

There are tons to choose from! Claymore, Phoenix, EWBF, LolMiner, etc... It can be overwhelming pretty quickly since they all have different algorithm support, speeds, efficiencies, and a whole lot more. On top of that, in order to get them running you need to set up batch files to call the proper exe, point you to the correct pool, and a whole bunch of other stuff that can be confusing to a new user. Not to mention, you will probably need a separate miner, config file, batch file, etc. for each different algorithm that you're interested in mining on.
Instead, I recommend that you download a miner management software that will take care of most of this tedious work for you. There are a few in the sidebar, but the /GPUMining favorite is AIOMiner. It was developed by our very own community member, xixspiderxix with the intention of making mining as easy as possible to do and without any fees. It supports over 100 different algorithms, so you'll be able to mine nearly ANY cryptocurrency you'd like. Just download it from their website and it will take you through a quick tutorial to help you get set up! You can also connect your rig to their website for remote monitoring and control. You've probably seen a few of their posts around this subreddit.
Other Windows mining softwares include:
Note: Many mining softwares have fees built into them. Most are around 1%, but can go as high as 5% or greater! You want a mining software with little or no fees at all so that you get to keep as much cryptocurrency as possible. These fees aren't something you actively pay, the software will automatically take it by mining on the developers behalf for a given amount of time and then switching back to mining on your own behalf. So, please be diligent in the software that you evaluate and make sure it is reputable.

I keep hearing about NiceHash. What is that?

The asshole of the mining industry. Jk, but not really.
NiceHash is a software program that allows you to sell your rig's hashing power to someone on their marketplace. They market themselves as profitable mining, but you're not really mining. You're selling your power in exchange for Bitcoin.
They did a great job telling people that with them, you're always mining the most profitable coin, but that's just not true. Since it is a mining marketplace, they make you mine whatever their most expensive contract is. If their contracts are below market prices, then you're not operating as efficiently and profitably as you could be.
NiceHash also has a sketchy history, which continues to this day. In 2017, they were hacked and lost $65M worth of Bitcoin. No one got paid out for MONTHS and many of their executives conveniently resigned. Their platform is also used to destroy cryptocurrencies. Since people are able to purchase mining power on their platform, people have used their platform to purchase enough mining power to control individual cryptocurrencies and duplicate coins, which increased the malicious user's wealth while completely destroying the integrity of the coin's blockchain. HoriZEN (formerly ZenCash), Ethereum Classic, and many other great cryptocurrencies have been the victim of NiceHash's platform.
For this and many other reasons, we highly recommend that you stay AWAY from Nicehash. We understand that it is extremely easy to use and you get paid in bitcoin, but they are destroying the industry with their greed and lack of motivation to change their platform for the protection of cryptocurrencies.

Concluding Thoughts

This is pretty much everything you need to know to get started. We covered the hardware, setting up the software, which software to use, and AIOMiner's tutorial will get you up to speed on how to actually mine the cryptocurrency that you want better than I can explain it, so I'll leave that part to them.
If you have any questions on this crash course, please leave a comment below where myself and other community members will be able to help you out.
submitted by The_Brutally_Honest to gpumining [link] [comments]

Proposal to switch to SHA-3 proof of work

https://github.com/aeonix/aeon/issues/103

I believe now is the right time for Aeon to become ASIC friendly by switching to SHA-3 PoW (the most recent Secure Hashing Algorithm standardized by NIST). Below I'll try to explain why:

There is no such thing as ASIC resistant PoW.

Whether someone creates an ASIC or not is not determined by how technologically difficult it is to do so, but how economically sensible it is to do so; i.e., when a coin gets more adopted and the price rises, ASICs will appear no matter what.
Below is a quote from Bitcoin StackExchange which makes a good point:
It's not really "someone figured out" how to mine on FPGAs or ASICs: an intelligent first year undergraduate could port SHA256 from C to Verilog. It's more that it began to make economic sense. ASICs in particular require a big enough up-front investment that you need economies of scale. – Peter Taylor Nov 9 '17 at 23:27
https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/questions/62336/why-did-satoshi-design-bitcoin-to-be-mineable-only-on-specialized-hardware-if-t#comment71658_62339
For every supposedly ASIC resistant PoW (scrypt, CryptoNight etc), ASICs have been created at some point when the coin became sufficiently large. An often seen argument is "CryptoNight was good at resisting ASICs because it survived the first 3 years without ASICs being developed", which I disagree. CryptoNight ASICs weren't created for the first 3 years simply because the market was too small; it wasn't worthwhile to develop CryptoNight ASICs.
Currently RandomX is receiving a lot of attention as being (almost) truly ASIC resistant by making PoW even more complex, but from the past experience and from logical reasoning, I have no reason to believe so.

Importance of protocol stability:

As a coin gets more widely adopted (and the price goes up), there will be more participants in the network (users, exchanges, merchants, pools, etc), which makes it more difficult to do hard forks (i.e. to force everyone to upgrade their software). Monero's 6 month fork schedule is already becoming almost unworkable due to the sheer network size, and I think they'll be forced to change this policy rather soon.
Imagine a hypothetical future where one particular crypto coin becomes a globally adopted world currency. That coin cannot do hard forks every so often; maybe once every two years is already too much. Ideally, at some point, the protocol should become absolutely stable and require no more hard forks at all.
With this in mind, I immediately see ASIC resistance being incompatible with this future, because hard forks (PoW changes) are rather frequently needed due to ASICs getting created faster and faster as the coin grows. ASIC resistance cannot be a sane strategy for a winning cryptocurrency.

Importance of switching now:

Going from ASIC resistant to ASIC friendly is such a radical change, and a strong opposition is naturally expected from many of the community members who have been supporting ASIC resistance. A compromise solution suggested by u/smooth_xmr is to adopt CryptonightR which Monero will switch to in the next upcoming hard fork. I think the reasoning is that CN-R is expected to be somewhat better at resisting ASICs and not much more computationally expensive than the previous CN variants (unlike RandomX), so we can wait and see how successful this will be before going full ASIC friendly.
Initially I felt OK with it, but I became unsatisfied after a while of thinking for these reasons:

Arguments for ASIC resistance and their counterarguments:

SHA-3 is the perfect way for Aeon to differentiate itself from Monero.

This change is radical but not stupid. Many people in the Monero community would be curious how things will play out for SHA-3 Aeon. This will surely also attract a lot of attention from the wider crypto community because Aeon will be the first CryptoNote coin that deployed SHA-3. I believe this is a very good opportunity for marketing as well.

Please discuss.
submitted by stoffu to Aeon [link] [comments]

Vertcoin Mining AMA

What is Vertcoin?

Vertcoin was created in 2014. It is a direct hedge against long term mining consensus centralization on the Bitcoin mining network. Vertcoin achieves its mining consensus solely through Graphics Cards as they are the most abundant / widely available consensus devices that produce a reasonable amount of hashrate. This is done using a mining algorithm that deliberately geared against devices like ASICs, FPGAs and CPUs (due to botnets) making them extremely inefficient. Consensus distribution over time is the most important aspect of a blockchain and should not be taken lightly. It is critical that you understand what blockchain specifications mean/do to fully understand Vertcoin.

Mining Vertcoin

When users of our network send each other Vertcoin, their transactions are secured by a process called mining. Miners will compose a so-called block out of the pending transactions, and need to perform a large number of computations called hashes in order to produce the Proof-of-Work. With this Proof-of-Work, the block is accepted by the network and the transactions in it become confirmed.
Mining is essentially a race. Whoever finds a valid Proof-of-Work and gets the block propagated over more than half of the Vertcoin network first, wins this race and is allowed to reward themselves with the block reward. The block reward is how new Vertcoin come in circulation. This block reward started at 50 VTC when Vertcoin was launched, and halves every four years. The current block reward is 25 VTC.
Vertcoin's One Click Miner: https://github.com/vertcoin-project/One-Click-Minereleases
Learn more about mining here: https://vertcoin.org/mine/
Specification List:
· Launch date: Jan 11, 2014
· Proof-Of-Work (Consensus Mechanism)
· Total Supply: 84,000,000 Vertcoin
· Preferred Consensus Device: GPU
· Mining Algorithm: Lyra2REv3 (Made by Vertcoin)
· Blocktime: 2.5 minutes
· SegWit: Activated
· Difficulty Adjustment Algorithm: Kimoto Gravity Well (Every Block)
· Block Halving: 4 year interval
· Initial Block Reward: 50 coins
· Current Block Reward: 25 coin
More spec information can be found here: https://vertcoin.org/specs-explained/

Why Does Vertcoin Use GPUs Then?

ASIC’s (Manufactuer Monopoly)
If mining were just a spade sure, use the most powerful equipment which would be an ASIC. The problem is ASICs are not widely available, and just happen to be controlled by a monopoly in China.
So, you want the most widely available tool that produces a fair amount of hashrate, which currently manifests itself as a Graphics Card.
CPUs would be great too but unfortunately there are viruses that take over hundreds of thousands of computers called Botnets (they’re almost as bad as ASICs).

Mining In Pools

Because mining is a race, it’s difficult for an individual miner to acquire enough computational power to win this race solo. Therefore there’s a concept called pool-mining. With pool-mining, miners cooperate in finding the correct Proof-of-Work for the block, and share the block reward based on the work contributed. The amount of work contributed is measured in so-called shares. Finding the Proof-of-Work for a share is much easier than finding it for a block, and when the cooperating miners find the Proof-of-Work for the block, they distribute the reward based on the number of shares each miner found. Vertcoin always recommends using P2Pool to keep mining as decentralized as possible.
How Do I Get Started?
If you want to get started mining, check out the Mine Vertcoin page.

Vertcoin just forked to Lyra2REv3 and we are currently working on Verthash

Verthash is and was under development before we decided to hard fork to Lyra2REv3. While Verthash would’ve resulted in the same effect for ASICs (making them useless for mining Vertcoin), the timeline was incompatible with the desire to get rid of ASICs quickly. Verthash is still under development and tries to address the outsourcability problem.
Verthash is an I/O bound algorithm that uses the blockchain data as input to the hashing algorithm. It therefore requires miners to have all the blockchain data available to them, which is currently about 4 GB of data. By making this mining data mandatory, it will become harder for auto profit switching miners — like the ones that rent out their GPU to Nicehash — because they will need to keep a full node running while mining other algorithms for the moment Verthash becomes more profitable — the data needs to be available immediately since updating it can take a while.
Over the past month, we have successfully developed a first implementation of Verthash in the Vertcoin Core code base. Within the development team we have run a few nodes on Testnet to test the functionality — and everything seems to work properly. The next step is to build out the GPU miners for AMD and Nvidia. This is a NOETA at the moment, since we’re waiting on GPU developers which are in high demand. Once the miners are ready, we’ll be releasing the Vertcoin 0.15 beta that hardforks the testnet together with the miners for the community to have a testrun. Given the structural difference between Lyra2RE and Verthash, we’ll have to run the testnet for a longer period than we did with the Lyra2REv3 hard fork. We’ll have to make sure the system is reliable before hardforking our mainnet. So the timeline will be longer than with the Lyra2REv3 hard fork.
Some people in the community have voiced concerns about the fact that Verthash development is not being done “out in the open”, i.e.: the code commits are not visible on Github. The main two reasons for us to keep our cards to our chest at this stage are: (1) only when the entire system including miners has been coded up can we be sure the system works, we don’t want to release preliminary stuff that doesn’t work or isn’t secure. Also (2) we don’t want to give hardware manufacturers or mining outsourcing platforms a head start on trying to defeat the mechanisms we’ve put in place.

Links and Resources

· Twitter: https://twitter.com/Vertcoin
· Donations: vertcoin.org/donate
· Join our Discord: https://discord.gg/vertcoin
· Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/vertcoin/
· Official Website: https://vertcoin.org/
· Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/vertcoin
· Vertcoin Talk: https://soundcloud.com/vertcoin-talk
· Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/vertcoin
submitted by Canen01 to gpumining [link] [comments]

Electroneum Fork 324500

Source: https://www.facebook.com/electroneum/posts/2030562537205714
Hi Everyone!
ALL ELECTRONEUM NODE OWNERS MUST UPDATE THEIR SOFTWARE BY BLOCK 324500 (approx. 36 hours from now – this is an URGENT UPDATE – PLEASE SHARE THIS INFORMATION)
We have an urgent software update below for anyone who runs a full Electroneum Node. If you don’t know what a node is , don’t worry! You won’t need to do anything.
We also have a VERY exciting update about an upcoming listing on a top 10 exchange.
How will I mine Electroneum after this update?
Instant Payment vendor API is open for BETA applicants.How can ETN change the world?
Please note that nothing in this message refers to MOBILE MINING – we are referring to the underlying blockchain miners.
Urgent Electroneum Node / RPC / Command Line Wallet Update
ALL ELECTRONEUM NODE OWNERS MUST UPDATE THEIR SOFTWARE BY BLOCK 324500 (approx. 36 hours from now – this is an URGENT UPDATE – PLEASE SHARE THIS INFORMATION)
https://github.com/electron…/electroneum/releases/…/v2.1.0.0
It’s only been a few short days since I made a video and said “our fork went well! We’re ready for 20m Users!”.
The fork was a great success, from a technical standpoint. Unfortunately, we never got back the number of GPU miners that are needed to ensure our network runs smoothly and has stable block emission. A new phenomenon has emerged where a number of users are mining Electroneum in waves. They come on and then leave after a few hours in a coordinated manner to mine ETN in a completely selfish way. We can’t blame people for maximizing their profit, but we have not built up the amount of “hashing power” that is required to make this impossible and create the stability we need in the network.
This has left us at risk. As such, we have to take urgent action to stabilise our network and protect the Electroneum community.
Coinbene Listing Electroneum & our network stability
We have formally agreed and signed contracts to be listed in July on the AWESOME, top 10, cryptocurrency exchange https://Coinbene.com & https://Coinbene.com.br
Coinbene have 1.5m active users and are a GREAT fit for Electroneum. Their primary markets are Latin America and Asia – which fits perfectly with Electroneum’s customer base. They have seen enormous growth over the last few months and have been very positive about the Electroneum Project.
Whilst this is great news, we will need much more hashing power to ensure we have network stability for our listing on this exchange, so we’ve taken the decision that we can’t wait any longer for GPU miners to return to us and we must run an urgent software update to re-introduce ASIC mining to Electroneum.
This is a very positive move for Electroneum. A great deal of Bitcoin’s trust and appeal is from the enormous hashing power and distribution of miners on the network. Bitcoin & LiteCoin have embraced ASICs and we feel that it is the right thing for Electroneum to do the same.
ASICS are becoming more prevalent, they cost considerably less to run than a GPU rig and use a fraction of the electricity. We are going to encourage more ASIC ownership and take our hashing rate up to (and beyond) the enormous levels of hashing power that we had before the May fork.
There is a further development. The first generation of hardware called an FPGA miner is arriving during 2018 and they make ANTI-ASIC capabilities a thing of the past, as they circumvent the slow delivery time of new ASICs by being re-programmable. If we are ready to embrace these rather than fight them, our network hashing power is increased further and our network stability and security is further enhanced.
Because ASICS run cooler, quieter and use a fraction of GPU rig power, they are suitable for MORE people to run in their homes. If you are interested, a search of “Cryptonight ASIC miner” in Google or Ebay will find the equipment needed to mine Electroneum. You will need to be reasonably technical to achieve this!
Having a stable network is absolutely key to both delivering mass adoption and to ensure we have a great relationship with the great exchanges that we’re already listed with, and to encourage more of the larger exchanges to see Electroneum as a coin that they want on board.
How will I mine Electroneum after this update?
If you are a mobile miner – nothing changes. If you are a GPU or ASIC miner then you’ll need to connect to an Electroneum pool but it is important to note that you will need to change your ALGORITHM. You MUST use the algorithm “Cryptonight” and NOT “Electroneum” or “CryptonightV7”. This will ensure your device works after the update. We will communicate this to all pools, but if you are a member of a mining pool – PLEASE LET THE ADMINS KNOW ABOUT THIS CRITICAL UPDATE. They must update their pool node by block 324500, which is only around 36 hours away.
Instant Payment vendor API is open for BETA applicants
Instant Cryptocurrency Payments via smart phone has always been a critical part of what Electroneum required to achieve mass market adoption. It’s never been done, but 9 short months after our ICO we are excited to announce that we have opened to the doors to vendors who would like to accept payment via Electroneum. The application is to be part of the BETA rollout of instant payment, but will operate on the live blockchain with real ETN!
If you run a business or know someone who does – why not recommend they apply to accept ETN. The Press and Marketing opportunities for the first, in any sector, to accept cryptocurrency are huge! Be part of the instant payment API BETA program by completing this form:
https://docs.google.com/…/1FAIpQLSfKTwWT7W4ltmApZO…/viewform
How can ETN change the world?
Instant payment does far more than allow people to pay for their coffee with crypto instead of their VISA card.
If you’d like to know more about Electroneum’s future I suggest you read a fantastic article that describes its coming role in the world, by fellow director Chris Gorman OBE (Officer of the British Empire – awarded by the Queen of England!): https://www.linkedin.com/…/how-cryptocurrency-enable-financ…
Electroneum has one of the largest of all cryptocurrency communities and it is made up of passionate and amazing people. With your support and world changing things we have coming out over the next few weeks, we can use this update to make our blockchain foundation secure and lead the world in mobile cryptocurrency.
I'm sure you agree that we've been through some challenging times which our team have always dealt with and learned from. The strength and support from our community and many of our goals becoming a reality combined with this blockchain update will give us the perfect foundation to deliver the Electroneum vision that we all share.
Thanks for taking the time to read this long message.
Have a great day everyone,
Richard Ells
Founder, Electroneum.com
submitted by MulatuTesh to Electroneum [link] [comments]

Mining ERC-918 Tokens (0xBitcoin)

GENERAL INFORMATION

0xBitcoin (0xBTC) is the first mineable ERC20 token on Ethereum. It uses mining for distribution, unlike all previous ERC20 tokens which were assigned to the contract deployer upon creation. 0xBTC is the first implementation of the EIP918 mineable token standard (https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-918), which opened up the possibility of a whole new class of mineable assets on Ethereum. Without any ICO, airdrop, pre-mine, or founder’s reward, 0xBitcoin is arguably the most decentralized asset in the Ethereum ecosystem, including even Ether (ETH), which had a large ICO.
The goal of 0xBitcoin is to be looked at as a currency and store of value asset on Ethereum. Its 21 million token hard cap and predictable issuance give it scarcity and transparency in terms of monetary policy, both things that Ether lacks. 0xBitcoin has certain advantages over PoW based currencies, such as compatibility with smart contracts and decentralized exchanges. In addition, 0xBTC cannot be 51% attacked (without attacking Ethereum), is immune from the “death spiral”, and will receive the benefits of scaling and other improvements to the Ethereum network.

GETTING 0xBITCOIN TOKENS

0xBitcoin can be mined using typical PC hardware, traded on exchanges (either decentralized or centralized) or purchased from specific sites/contracts.

-Mined using PC hardware

-Traded on exchanges such as


MINING IN A NUTSHELL

0xBitcoin is a Smart Contract on the Ethereum network, and the concept of Token Mining is patterned after Bitcoin's distribution. Rather than solving 'blocks', work is issued by the contract, which also maintains a Difficulty which goes up or down depending on how often a Reward is issued. Miners can put their hardware to work to claim these rewards, in concert with specialized software, working either by themselves or together as a Pool. The total lifetime supply of 0xBitcoin is 21,000,000 tokens and rewards will repeatedly halve over time.
The 0xBitcoin contract was deployed by Infernal_Toast at Ethereum address: 0xb6ed7644c69416d67b522e20bc294a9a9b405b31
0xBitcoin's smart contract, running on the Ethereum network, maintains a changing "Challenge" (that is generated from the previous Ethereum block hash) and an adjusting Difficulty Target. Like traditional mining, the miners use the SoliditySHA3 algorithm to solve for a Nonce value that, when hashed alongside the current Challenge and their Minting Ethereum Address, is less-than-or-equal-to the current Difficulty Target. Once a miner finds a solution that satisfies the requirements, they can submit it into the contract (calling the Mint() function). This is most often done through a mining pool. The Ethereum address that submits a valid solution first is sent the 50 0xBTC Reward.
(In the case of Pools, valid solutions that do not satisfy the full difficulty specified by the 0xBitcoin contract, but that DO satisfy the Pool's specified Minimum Share Difficulty, get a 'share'. When one of the Miners on that Pool finds a "Full" solution, the number of shares each miner's address has submitted is used to calculate how much of the 50 0xBTC reward they will get. After a Reward is issued, the Challenge changes.
A Retarget happens every 1024 rewards. In short, the Contract tries to target an Average Reward Time of about 60 times the Ethereum block time. So (at the time of this writing):
~13.9 seconds \* 60 = 13.9 minutes
If the average Reward Time is longer than that, the difficulty will decrease. If it's shorter, it will increase. How much longer or shorter it was affects the magnitude with which the difficulty will rise/drop, to a maximum of 50%. * Click Here to visit the stats page~ (https://0x1d00ffff.github.io/0xBTC-Stats) to see recent stats and block times, feel free to ask questions about it if you need help understanding it.

MINING HARDWARE

Presently, 0xBitcoin and "Alt Tokens" can be mined on GPUs, CPUs, IGPs (on-CPU graphics) and certain FPGAs. The most recommended hardware is nVidia graphics cards for their efficiency, ubiquity and relatively low cost. As general rules, the more cores and the higher core frequency (clock) you can get, the more Tokens you will earn!
Mining on nVidia cards:
Mining on AMD cards:
Mining on IGPs (e.g. AMD Radeon and Intel HD Graphics):
Clocks and Power Levels:

MINING SOFTWARE AND DESCRIPTIONS

For the most up-to-date version info, download links, thread links and author contact information, please see this thread: https://www.reddit.com/0xbitcoin/comments/8o06dk/links_to_the_newestbest_miners_for_nvidia_amd/ Keep up to date for the latest speed, stability and feature enhancements!
COSMiC Miner by LtTofu:
SoliditySha3Miner by Amano7:
AIOMiner All-In-One GPU Miner:
TokenMiner by MVis (Mining-Visualizer):
"Nabiki"/2.10.4 by Azlehria:
~Older Miners: Older and possibly-unsupported miner versions can be found at the above link for historical purposes and specific applications- including the original NodeJS CPU miner by Infernal Toast/Zegordo, the '1000x' NodeJS/C++ hybrid version of 0xBitcoin-Miner and Mikers' enhanced CUDA builds.

FOR MORE INFORMATION...

If you have any trouble, the friendly and helpful 0xBitcoin community will be happy to help you out. Discord has kind of become 0xBTC's community hub, you can get answers the fastest from devs and helpful community members. Or message one of the community members on reddit listed below.
Links
submitted by GeoffedUP to gpumining [link] [comments]

The Problem with PoW

The Problem with PoW
Miners have always had it rough..
"Frustrated Miners"

The Problem with PoW
(and what is being done to solve it)

Proof of Work (PoW) is one of the most commonly used consensus mechanisms entrusted to secure and validate many of today’s most successful cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin being one. Battle-hardened and having weathered the test of time, Bitcoin has demonstrated the undeniable strength and reliability of the PoW consensus model through sheer market saturation, and of course, its persistency.
In addition to the cost of powerful computing hardware, miners prove that they are benefiting the network by expending energy in the form of electricity, by solving and hashing away complex math problems on their computers, utilizing any suitable tools that they have at their disposal. The mathematics involved in securing proof of work revolve around unique algorithms, each with their own benefits and vulnerabilities, and can require different software/hardware to mine depending on the coin.
Because each block has a unique and entirely random hash, or “puzzle” to solve, the “work” has to be performed for each block individually and the difficulty of the problem can be increased as the speed at which blocks are solved increases.

Hashrates and Hardware Types

While proof of work is an effective means of securing a blockchain, it inherently promotes competition amongst miners seeking higher and higher hashrates due to the rewards earned by the node who wins the right to add the next block. In turn, these higher hash rates benefit the blockchain, providing better security when it’s a result of a well distributed/decentralized network of miners.
When Bitcoin first launched its genesis block, it was mined exclusively by CPUs. Over the years, various programmers and developers have devised newer, faster, and more energy efficient ways to generate higher hashrates; some by perfecting the software end of things, and others, when the incentives are great enough, create expensive specialized hardware such as ASICs (application-specific integrated circuit). With the express purpose of extracting every last bit of hashing power, efficiency being paramount, ASICs are stripped down, bare minimum, hardware representations of a specific coin’s algorithm.
This gives ASICS a massive advantage in terms of raw hashing power and also in terms of energy consumption against CPUs/GPUs, but with significant drawbacks of being very expensive to design/manufacture, translating to a high economic barrier for the casual miner. Due to the fact that they are virtual hardware representations of a single targeted algorithm, this means that if a project decides to fork and change algorithms suddenly, your powerful brand-new ASIC becomes a very expensive paperweight. The high costs in developing and manufacturing ASICs and the associated risks involved, make them unfit for mass adoption at this time.
Somewhere on the high end, in the vast hashrate expanse created between GPU and ASIC, sits the FPGA (field programmable gate array). FPGAs are basically ASICs that make some compromises with efficiency in order to have more flexibility, namely they are reprogrammable and often used in the “field” to test an algorithm before implementing it in an ASIC. As a precursor to the ASIC, FPGAs are somewhat similar to GPUs in their flexibility, but require advanced programming skills and, like ASICs, are expensive and still fairly uncommon.

2 Guys 1 ASIC

One of the issues with proof of work incentivizing the pursuit of higher hashrates is in how the network calculates block reward coinbase payouts and rewards miners based on the work that they have submitted. If a coin generated, say a block a minute, and this is a constant, then what happens if more miners jump on a network and do more work? The network cannot pay out more than 1 block reward per 1 minute, and so a difficulty mechanism is used to maintain balance. The difficulty will scale up and down in response to the overall nethash, so if many miners join the network, or extremely high hashing devices such as ASICs or FPGAs jump on, the network will respond accordingly, using the difficulty mechanism to make the problems harder, effectively giving an edge to hardware that can solve them faster, balancing the network. This not only maintains the block a minute reward but it has the added side-effect of energy requirements that scale up with network adoption.
Imagine, for example, if one miner gets on a network all alone with a CPU doing 50 MH/s and is getting all 100 coins that can possibly be paid out in a day. Then, if another miner jumps on the network with the same CPU, each miner would receive 50 coins in a day instead of 100 since they are splitting the required work evenly, despite the fact that the net electrical output has doubled along with the work. Electricity costs miner’s money and is a factor in driving up coin price along with adoption, and since more people are now mining, the coin is less centralized. Now let’s say a large corporation has found it profitable to manufacture an ASIC for this coin, knowing they will make their money back mining it or selling the units to professionals. They join the network doing 900 MH/s and will be pulling in 90 coins a day, while the two guys with their CPUs each get 5 now. Those two guys aren’t very happy, but the corporation is. Not only does this negatively affect the miners, it compromises the security of the entire network by centralizing the coin supply and hashrate, opening the doors to double spends and 51% attacks from potential malicious actors. Uncertainty of motives and questionable validity in a distributed ledger do not mix.
When technology advances in a field, it is usually applauded and welcomed with open arms, but in the world of crypto things can work quite differently. One of the glaring flaws in the current model and the advent of specialized hardware is that it’s never ending. Suppose the two men from the rather extreme example above took out a loan to get themselves that ASIC they heard about that can get them 90 coins a day? When they join the other ASIC on the network, the difficulty adjusts to keep daily payouts consistent at 100, and they will each receive only 33 coins instead of 90 since the reward is now being split three ways. Now what happens if a better ASIC is released by that corporation? Hopefully, those two guys were able to pay off their loans and sell their old ASICs before they became obsolete.
This system, as it stands now, only perpetuates a never ending hashrate arms race in which the weapons of choice are usually a combination of efficiency, economics, profitability and in some cases control.

Implications of Centralization

This brings us to another big concern with expensive specialized hardware: the risk of centralization. Because they are so expensive and inaccessible to the casual miner, ASICs and FPGAs predominantly remain limited to a select few. Centralization occurs when one small group or a single entity controls the vast majority hash power and, as a result, coin supply and is able to exert its influence to manipulate the market or in some cases, the network itself (usually the case of dishonest nodes or bad actors).
This is entirely antithetical of what cryptocurrency was born of, and since its inception many concerted efforts have been made to avoid centralization at all costs. An entity in control of a centralized coin would have the power to manipulate the price, and having a centralized hashrate would enable them to affect network usability, reliability, and even perform double spends leading to the demise of a coin, among other things.
The world of crypto is a strange new place, with rapidly growing advancements across many fields, economies, and boarders, leaving plenty of room for improvement; while it may feel like a never-ending game of catch up, there are many talented developers and programmers working around the clock to bring us all more sustainable solutions.

The Rise of FPGAs

With the recent implementation of the commonly used coding language C++, and due to their overall flexibility, FPGAs are becoming somewhat more common, especially in larger farms and in industrial setting; but they still remain primarily out of the hands of most mining enthusiasts and almost unheard of to the average hobby miner. Things appear to be changing though, one example of which I’ll discuss below, and it is thought by some, that soon we will see a day when mining with a CPU or GPU just won’t cut it any longer, and the market will be dominated by FPGAs and specialized ASICs, bringing with them efficiency gains for proof of work, while also carelessly leading us all towards the next round of spending.
A perfect real-world example of the effect specialized hardware has had on the crypto-community was recently discovered involving a fairly new project called VerusCoin and a fairly new, relatively more economically accessible FPGA. The FPGA is designed to target specific alt-coins whose algo’s do not require RAM overhead. It was discovered the company had released a new algorithm, kept secret from the public, which could effectively mine Verus at 20x the speed of GPUs, which were the next fastest hardware types mining on the Verus network.
Unfortunately this was done with a deliberately secret approach, calling the Verus algorithm “Algo1” and encouraging owners of the FPGA to never speak of the algorithm in public channels, admonishing a user when they did let the cat out of the bag. The problem with this business model is that it is parasitic in nature. In an ecosystem where advancements can benefit the entire crypto community, this sort of secret mining approach also does not support the philosophies set forth by the Bitcoin or subsequent open source and decentralization movements.
Although this was not done in the spirit of open source, it does hint to an important step in hardware innovation where we could see more efficient specialized systems within reach of the casual miner. The FPGA requires unique sets of data called a bitstream in order to be able to recognize each individual coin’s algorithm and mine them. Because it’s reprogrammable, with the support of a strong development team creating such bitstreams, the miner doesn’t end up with a brick if an algorithm changes.

All is not lost thanks to.. um.. Technology?

Shortly after discovering FPGAs on the network, the Verus developers quickly designed, tested, and implemented a new, much more complex and improved algorithm via a fork that enabled Verus to transition smoothly from VerusHash 1.0 to VerusHash 2.0 at block 310,000. Since the fork, VerusHash 2.0 has demonstrated doing exactly what it was designed for- equalizing hardware performance relative to the device being used while enabling CPUs (the most widely available “ASICs”) to mine side by side with GPUs, at a profit and it appears this will also apply to other specialized hardware. This is something no other project has been able to do until now. Rather than pursue the folly of so many other projects before it- attempting to be “ASIC proof”, Verus effectively achieved and presents to the world an entirely new model of “hardware homogeny”. As the late, great, Bruce Lee once said- “Don’t get set into one form, adapt it and build your own, and let it grow, be like water.”
In the design of VerusHash 2.0, Verus has shown it doesn’t resist progress like so many other new algorithms try to do, it embraces change and adapts to it in the way that water becomes whatever vessel it inhabits. This new approach- an industry first- could very well become an industry standard and in doing so, would usher in a new age for proof of work based coins. VerusHash 2.0 has the potential to correct the single largest design flaw in the proof of work consensus mechanism- the ever expanding monetary and energy requirements that have plagued PoW based projects since the inception of the consensus mechanism. Verus also solves another major issue of coin and net hash centralization by enabling legitimate CPU mining, offering greater coin and hashrate distribution.
Digging a bit deeper it turns out the Verus development team are no rookies. The lead developer Michael F Toutonghi has spent decades in the field programming and is a former Vice President and Technical Fellow at Microsoft, recognized founder and architect of Microsoft's .Net platform, ex-Technical Fellow of Microsoft's advertising platform, ex-CTO, Parallels Corporation, and an experienced distributed computing and machine learning architect. The project he helped create employs and makes use of a diverse myriad of technologies and security features to form one of the most advanced and secure cryptocurrency to date. A brief description of what makes VerusCoin special quoted from a community member-
"Verus has a unique and new consensus algorithm called Proof of Power which is a 50% PoW/50% PoS algorithm that solves theoretical weaknesses in other PoS systems (Nothing at Stake problem for example) and is provably immune to 51% hash attacks. With this, Verus uses the new hash algorithm, VerusHash 2.0. VerusHash 2.0 is designed to better equalize mining across all hardware platforms, while favoring the latest CPUs over older types, which is also one defense against the centralizing potential of botnets. Unlike past efforts to equalize hardware hash-rates across different hardware types, VerusHash 2.0 explicitly enables CPUs to gain even more power relative to GPUs and FPGAs, enabling the most decentralizing hardware, CPUs (due to their virtually complete market penetration), to stay relevant as miners for the indefinite future. As for anonymity, Verus is not a "forced private", allowing for both transparent and shielded (private) transactions...and private messages as well"

If other projects can learn from this and adopt a similar approach or continue to innovate with new ideas, it could mean an end to all the doom and gloom predictions that CPU and GPU mining are dead, offering a much needed reprieve and an alternative to miners who have been faced with the difficult decision of either pulling the plug and shutting down shop or breaking down their rigs to sell off parts and buy new, more expensive hardware…and in so doing present an overall unprecedented level of decentralization not yet seen in cryptocurrency.
Technological advancements led us to the world of secure digital currencies and the progress being made with hardware efficiencies is indisputably beneficial to us all. ASICs and FPGAs aren’t inherently bad, and there are ways in which they could be made more affordable and available for mass distribution. More than anything, it is important that we work together as communities to find solutions that can benefit us all for the long term.

In an ever changing world where it may be easy to lose sight of the real accomplishments that brought us to this point one thing is certain, cryptocurrency is here to stay and the projects that are doing something to solve the current problems in the proof of work consensus mechanism will be the ones that lead us toward our collective vision of a better world- not just for the world of crypto but for each and every one of us.
submitted by Godballz to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Profitable Crypto Mining: ASIC vs GPU, Which One Is Better?

Profitable Crypto Mining: ASIC vs GPU, Which One Is Better?
If you’re new to mining you probably have multiple questions running through your head right now. Good news is that it gets easier with time, assuming that you do your homework and research, and we will try to help you out.
One of the common questions is whether one should choose GPU or ASIC mining and we definitely have some advice on that topic.
When we’re considering classic POW mining we can quickly rule out CPU hardware for not being efficient and FPGA hardware because of its high costs. This leaves you with ASIC and GPU to choose from.

https://preview.redd.it/igev3y4v8pv31.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=2a0c9271fc36252181d086e74101d13875619c80

Buying Mining Equipment

Let’s get things straight — you won’t be able to buy ASIC devices in any of you local electronic shops, even in the biggest ones. There are two ways you can get this hardware: buying it online which shouldn’t be a problem these days unless that’s the newest model you’re after. Second option is to find a local company that sells ASIC equipment.
Also, you can try to purchase the equipment directly from the manufacture company, however, mind the huge customs and delivery fees if the company is located abroad.
It is highly recommended to test ASICs before buying them to make sure the equipment works properly.
GPU or graphics cards and other equipment that you will need to build your very own mining farm can be easily purchased at a regular computer store. The only problem you may have is getting the right set of hardware, so make sure to come prepared.
When buying a used (second-hand) graphics card don’t forget to test it.
What’s better?
If you’re not into hardware and have no clue how to set up a farm by yourself buying ASIC equipment would be a better option as you won’t need to build anything yourself.

Warranty Policy

In general, an official warranty policy for ASIC hardware is up to 180 days since the equipment was shipped to the buyer. When the seller is confident about the quality of their equipment, they can offer their personal 1 month warranty.
When you’re buying computer hardware in most of the cases you are getting full 2 year warranty policy including exchange or repairments of the equipment.
What’s better?
Warranty policy is especially important when you have no chance to check the equipment yourself or when you’re buying large inventory of it. Also, if you plan to go with overclocking, you will probably need a decent warranty as well.
We need to add that when you’re using the equipment accordingly and conduct regular maintenance both ASIC and GPU can work past the warranty period.

Setting Up Process

With ASICs it’s simple: you plug and connect it, pick a pool to join and start mining right away.
With GPU, it’s a little complicated. First, you need to build your farm. You will need a framework, motherboard with installed CPU and cooling, storage unit, power supply, risers and video cards. If you have no experience with assembling computer hardware you’re gonna need to save some time and prepare to put extra effort. Once your rig is ready you will have to install OS and optimize it which is usually even harder than setting up a rig. But luckily we’ve got a solution for that. CoinFly can do the work for you and help you with setting up and optimizing your equipment.
What’s better?
Although ASICs are very easy, you shouldn’t quickly give up on GPU mining. If assembling computer hardware is not a big problem for you, CoinFly will help you with setting it up.

Maintenance

ASIC equipment won’t give you too much trouble: it’s safe, stable, and doesn’t require any special knowledge. Maintenance includes cleaning off dust and oiling the fans.
When dealing with rigs, you will have to work a little harder and study the basics about at least graphics cards’ temperatures and operational frequency. A stable workflow depends heavily on the software and as it has a tendency to fail, it could become a problem. Unless you’re using CoinFly — our system will notify you in case of emergency so you can tune your equipment online.
What’s better?
Once again, when it comes to maintaining ASICs are almost trouble-free. GPU rigs are a bit tricky but when using the right tools like CoinFly to monitor their work, it can serve you just fine.

The Noise

ASICs are loud: when you’re in a room with a working ASIC you’re gonna need to shout, so people can hear you.
GPU farms have no such problem. Some of them are almost silent and that doesn’t affect the cooling process at all.
What’s better?
Maybe the level of noise your equipment makes was not the first issue on your list but we recommend you to consider it. ASICs are suitable only for the commercial and industrial premises.

Mining

ASICs can work with only one algorithm and mine one or several types of cryptocurrencies and are perfect for mining Bitcoin and its forks.
GPU rigs are universal: you can mine a huge variety of coins if you set your miner right.
What’s better?
If you want to mine Bitcoin, you gotta go with ASIC. But think again if that’s what you’re really after. After all, you can choose mining any altcoin that you’d like with your GPU rig and then simply exchange it to BTC. And if you’re lucky enough to mine a coin that will do good ASICs do not give you that choice, however, their mining capability is higher.

Relevance of the Equipment

ASICs are quickly getting out of date as the new models come along. Back in the day, the new versions used to come out every half a year and they were 10 times more efficient. In general, you need to change your ASIC hardware every year.
GPU equipment can perfectly serve you for 2 to 3 years and if you wish to sell the graphics card afterwards that wouldn’t be a problem either.
What’s better?
In terms of relevance, it’s probably reasonable to go with the GPU.

Return on Investment

In the long run, the profitableness of ASICs is higher but because the new models are being released quite frequently you cannot expect huge profits. It is always important to do your research and get the most relevant equipment.
GPU hardware will take its time to pay you back but it also depends if you manage to find the right coin to mine that will eventually increase your profits.
What’s better?
ASIC mining is definitely a good option for those who don’t want to constantly monitor the crypto market.
But in the case that you’re interested in what’s happening in the crypto space and you also have time to do your own research, the GPU farm would the better choice. If you’re not willing to spend your efforts on that, CoinFly Autopilot mode will help you mine the most profitable coin on the market automatically.

Conclusion

ASICs are great for people who can provide a non-residential space for mining and not willing to spend too much time and effort for setting up the equipment and stay updated with the latest trends in the crypto industry.
GPU rigs are suitable for mining at home and won’t scare away all the crypto and computer enthusiasts. If you’re just starting your mining journey but not sure how to do it, we recommend to register on CoinFly. From setting up your hardware to tuning it online and picking the best coin to mine at the moment — we’ve got you covered!
submitted by coinfly to CoinFly [link] [comments]

What is SUQA project – How to mine SUQA coin

What is SUQA project – How to mine SUQA coin
SUQA coin is fast (533 Transactions per second) and almost No Transaction Fees. This makes it unique comparing with other projects.
SUQA is a new digital currency that has a new X22i POW algo. X22i algo is not a copy or clone of any old one but it is completely ASIC, FPGA and Quantum Resistant.
SUQA project also have a newest feature that u can 5% apr interest from term deposits even if the wallet is offline.
SUQA project aims to create the hub with SUQA payments and without taking any fees.
SUQA has a unique time-lock interest system for every user to earn deposits from their wallets without technical knowledge.
Since SUQA project is a new, unique ASIC, FPGA, Quantum resistant algorithm is very helpful for the mining community and solves numerous problems for miners. For example if you have a one GPU or only one rig you will be able to mine to the last block of SUQA without comparing any ASIC or FPGA device because SUQA will renew the algo every 6 months.
In real life SUQA will support the its community by foundation activities like mining, donations, bounty campaigns. ect.SUQA coin can be mined by GPUs (Nvidia and AMD) and CPUs. But it is only possible to mine it profitable by GPUs. SUQA unique X22i algo is also energy efficient and make your GPUs to less heat.
How To Mine SUQA coin
To mine SUQA coin 1) you need to find a miner software based on the GPU you have. 2) Download wallet and get a SUQA wallet address. 3) And then select a good pool.
Suqa Coin Algo: X22i
MINER:
– AMD:zjazz_amd_minerhttps://github.com/zjazz/zjazz_amd_minereleases
– NVIDIA:ccminer x22i win64 binary releasehttps://github.com/SUQAORG/ccminer-x22i/releases
zjazz_cuda_minerhttps://github.com/zjazz/zjazz_cuda_minereleases/tag/1.0
Trexhttps://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4432704.0
Example for trex miner .bat code:t-rex.exe -a x22i -o stratum+tcp://suqa-pool.beepool.org:9504 -u YourSUQAWallet.WorkerName -p c=SUQA -R 3

https://preview.redd.it/3k92xaieh8221.jpg?width=757&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5b5d8259fd9847a9c003187ed7f8fa5ae14e5de2

SUQA coin hashrate, SUQA coin mining performance

Nvidia GTX 1070 – 6.4MH/s (Gigabyte GTX 1070 OC )– Nvidia GTX 1070 Ti – 7.5 Mh/s (Gigabyte GTX 1070Ti OC )– Nvidia GTX 1080Ti – 11.5 Mh/s (MSI GTX 1080Ti)
– AMD RX580 – 3.2 Mh/s (Sapphire RX 580)

SUQA coin Mining Profitability

Mining SUQA coin you will get this: SUQA price is now ~ $0,005546 (138 satoshi)
– 120 SUQA / GTX 1080Ti daily– 75 SUQA / GTX 1070 Ti daily– 65 SUQA / 7x GTX 1070 daily
SUQA coin Mining Pools: https://bsod.pw https://icemining.ca https://beepool.org/coindetail/suqaand for more pools https://discord.gg/ArttaNA
SUQA coin Difficulty: 8824.28235 @ block 22 179
SUQA coin block reward: 5000
SUQA coin Exchange Markets:Suqa coin is now on
Official Exchanges – Check on CoinMarketCap
  1. Escodexhttps://wallet.escodex.com/market/ESCODEX.SUQACOIN_ESCODEX.BTC
  2. Stexhttps://app.stex.com/en/basic-trade/paiBTC/SUQA/1D
  3. QBTChttps://www.myqbtc.com/trade
And Crypto-Bridge is on the wayhttps://wallet.crypto-bridge.org/market/BRIDGE.SUQA_BRIDGE.BTC
Website: https://suqa.org
Whitepaper: https://suqa.org/file/2018/10/suqa-whitepaper.pdf
BitcoinTalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5038269.0
GitHub: https://github.com/SUQAORG
Twitter: https://twitter.com/SUQAfoundation
Facebook: https://facebook.com/SUQAFoundation
Discord: https://discord.gg/ArttaNA
Author: uk baxoi
profile: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2364181
submitted by mahdi32 to gpumining [link] [comments]

The Problem with PoW


Miners have always had it rough..
"Frustrated Miners"


The Problem with PoW
(and what is being done to solve it)

Proof of Work (PoW) is one of the most commonly used consensus mechanisms entrusted to secure and validate many of today’s most successful cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin being one. Battle-hardened and having weathered the test of time, Bitcoin has demonstrated the undeniable strength and reliability of the PoW consensus model through sheer market saturation, and of course, its persistency.
In addition to the cost of powerful computing hardware, miners prove that they are benefiting the network by expending energy in the form of electricity, by solving and hashing away complex math problems on their computers, utilizing any suitable tools that they have at their disposal. The mathematics involved in securing proof of work revolve around unique algorithms, each with their own benefits and vulnerabilities, and can require different software/hardware to mine depending on the coin.
Because each block has a unique and entirely random hash, or “puzzle” to solve, the “work” has to be performed for each block individually and the difficulty of the problem can be increased as the speed at which blocks are solved increases.
Hashrates and Hardware Types
While proof of work is an effective means of securing a blockchain, it inherently promotes competition amongst miners seeking higher and higher hashrates due to the rewards earned by the node who wins the right to add the next block. In turn, these higher hash rates benefit the blockchain, providing better security when it’s a result of a well distributed/decentralized network of miners.
When Bitcoin first launched its genesis block, it was mined exclusively by CPUs. Over the years, various programmers and developers have devised newer, faster, and more energy efficient ways to generate higher hashrates; some by perfecting the software end of things, and others, when the incentives are great enough, create expensive specialized hardware such as ASICs (application-specific integrated circuit). With the express purpose of extracting every last bit of hashing power, efficiency being paramount, ASICs are stripped down, bare minimum, hardware representations of a specific coin’s algorithm.
This gives ASICS a massive advantage in terms of raw hashing power and also in terms of energy consumption against CPUs/GPUs, but with significant drawbacks of being very expensive to design/manufacture, translating to a high economic barrier for the casual miner. Due to the fact that they are virtual hardware representations of a single targeted algorithm, this means that if a project decides to fork and change algorithms suddenly, your powerful brand-new ASIC becomes a very expensive paperweight. The high costs in developing and manufacturing ASICs and the associated risks involved, make them unfit for mass adoption at this time.
Somewhere on the high end, in the vast hashrate expanse created between GPU and ASIC, sits the FPGA (field programmable gate array). FPGAs are basically ASICs that make some compromises with efficiency in order to have more flexibility, namely they are reprogrammable and often used in the “field” to test an algorithm before implementing it in an ASIC. As a precursor to the ASIC, FPGAs are somewhat similar to GPUs in their flexibility, but require advanced programming skills and, like ASICs, are expensive and still fairly uncommon.
2 Guys 1 ASIC
One of the issues with proof of work incentivizing the pursuit of higher hashrates is in how the network calculates block reward coinbase payouts and rewards miners based on the work that they have submitted. If a coin generated, say a block a minute, and this is a constant, then what happens if more miners jump on a network and do more work? The network cannot pay out more than 1 block reward per 1 minute, and so a difficulty mechanism is used to maintain balance. The difficulty will scale up and down in response to the overall nethash, so if many miners join the network, or extremely high hashing devices such as ASICs or FPGAs jump on, the network will respond accordingly, using the difficulty mechanism to make the problems harder, effectively giving an edge to hardware that can solve them faster, balancing the network. This not only maintains the block a minute reward but it has the added side-effect of energy requirements that scale up with network adoption.
Imagine, for example, if one miner gets on a network all alone with a CPU doing 50 MH/s and is getting all 100 coins that can possibly be paid out in a day. Then, if another miner jumps on the network with the same CPU, each miner would receive 50 coins in a day instead of 100 since they are splitting the required work evenly, despite the fact that the net electrical output has doubled along with the work. Electricity costs miner’s money and is a factor in driving up coin price along with adoption, and since more people are now mining, the coin is less centralized. Now let’s say a large corporation has found it profitable to manufacture an ASIC for this coin, knowing they will make their money back mining it or selling the units to professionals. They join the network doing 900 MH/s and will be pulling in 90 coins a day, while the two guys with their CPUs each get 5 now. Those two guys aren’t very happy, but the corporation is. Not only does this negatively affect the miners, it compromises the security of the entire network by centralizing the coin supply and hashrate, opening the doors to double spends and 51% attacks from potential malicious actors. Uncertainty of motives and questionable validity in a distributed ledger do not mix.
When technology advances in a field, it is usually applauded and welcomed with open arms, but in the world of crypto things can work quite differently. One of the glaring flaws in the current model and the advent of specialized hardware is that it’s never ending. Suppose the two men from the rather extreme example above took out a loan to get themselves that ASIC they heard about that can get them 90 coins a day? When they join the other ASIC on the network, the difficulty adjusts to keep daily payouts consistent at 100, and they will each receive only 33 coins instead of 90 since the reward is now being split three ways. Now what happens if a better ASIC is released by that corporation? Hopefully, those two guys were able to pay off their loans and sell their old ASICs before they became obsolete.
This system, as it stands now, only perpetuates a never ending hashrate arms race in which the weapons of choice are usually a combination of efficiency, economics, profitability and in some cases control.
Implications of Centralization
This brings us to another big concern with expensive specialized hardware: the risk of centralization. Because they are so expensive and inaccessible to the casual miner, ASICs and FPGAs predominantly remain limited to a select few. Centralization occurs when one small group or a single entity controls the vast majority hash power and, as a result, coin supply and is able to exert its influence to manipulate the market or in some cases, the network itself (usually the case of dishonest nodes or bad actors).
This is entirely antithetical of what cryptocurrency was born of, and since its inception many concerted efforts have been made to avoid centralization at all costs. An entity in control of a centralized coin would have the power to manipulate the price, and having a centralized hashrate would enable them to affect network usability, reliability, and even perform double spends leading to the demise of a coin, among other things.
The world of crypto is a strange new place, with rapidly growing advancements across many fields, economies, and boarders, leaving plenty of room for improvement; while it may feel like a never-ending game of catch up, there are many talented developers and programmers working around the clock to bring us all more sustainable solutions.
The Rise of FPGAs
With the recent implementation of the commonly used coding language C++, and due to their overall flexibility, FPGAs are becoming somewhat more common, especially in larger farms and in industrial setting; but they still remain primarily out of the hands of most mining enthusiasts and almost unheard of to the average hobby miner. Things appear to be changing though, one example of which I’ll discuss below, and it is thought by some, that soon we will see a day when mining with a CPU or GPU just won’t cut it any longer, and the market will be dominated by FPGAs and specialized ASICs, bringing with them efficiency gains for proof of work, while also carelessly leading us all towards the next round of spending.
A perfect real-world example of the effect specialized hardware has had on the crypto-community was recently discovered involving a fairly new project called VerusCoin and a fairly new, relatively more economically accessible FPGA. The FPGA is designed to target specific alt-coins whose algo’s do not require RAM overhead. It was discovered the company had released a new algorithm, kept secret from the public, which could effectively mine Verus at 20x the speed of GPUs, which were the next fastest hardware types mining on the Verus network.
Unfortunately this was done with a deliberately secret approach, calling the Verus algorithm “Algo1” and encouraging owners of the FPGA to never speak of the algorithm in public channels, admonishing a user when they did let the cat out of the bag. The problem with this business model is that it is parasitic in nature. In an ecosystem where advancements can benefit the entire crypto community, this sort of secret mining approach also does not support the philosophies set forth by the Bitcoin or subsequent open source and decentralization movements.
Although this was not done in the spirit of open source, it does hint to an important step in hardware innovation where we could see more efficient specialized systems within reach of the casual miner. The FPGA requires unique sets of data called a bitstream in order to be able to recognize each individual coin’s algorithm and mine them. Because it’s reprogrammable, with the support of a strong development team creating such bitstreams, the miner doesn’t end up with a brick if an algorithm changes.
All is not lost thanks to.. um.. Technology?
Shortly after discovering FPGAs on the network, the Verus developers quickly designed, tested, and implemented a new, much more complex and improved algorithm via a fork that enabled Verus to transition smoothly from VerusHash 1.0 to VerusHash 2.0 at block 310,000. Since the fork, VerusHash 2.0 has demonstrated doing exactly what it was designed for- equalizing hardware performance relative to the device being used while enabling CPUs (the most widely available “ASICs”) to mine side by side with GPUs, at a profit and it appears this will also apply to other specialized hardware. This is something no other project has been able to do until now. Rather than pursue the folly of so many other projects before it- attempting to be “ASIC proof”, Verus effectively achieved and presents to the world an entirely new model of “hardware homogeny”. As the late, great, Bruce Lee once said- “Don’t get set into one form, adapt it and build your own, and let it grow, be like water.”
In the design of VerusHash 2.0, Verus has shown it doesn’t resist progress like so many other new algorithms try to do, it embraces change and adapts to it in the way that water becomes whatever vessel it inhabits. This new approach- an industry first- could very well become an industry standard and in doing so, would usher in a new age for proof of work based coins. VerusHash 2.0 has the potential to correct the single largest design flaw in the proof of work consensus mechanism- the ever expanding monetary and energy requirements that have plagued PoW based projects since the inception of the consensus mechanism. Verus also solves another major issue of coin and net hash centralization by enabling legitimate CPU mining, offering greater coin and hashrate distribution.
Digging a bit deeper it turns out the Verus development team are no rookies. The lead developer Michael F Toutonghi has spent decades in the field programming and is a former Vice President and Technical Fellow at Microsoft, recognized founder and architect of Microsoft's .Net platform, ex-Technical Fellow of Microsoft's advertising platform, ex-CTO, Parallels Corporation, and an experienced distributed computing and machine learning architect. The project he helped create employs and makes use of a diverse myriad of technologies and security features to form one of the most advanced and secure cryptocurrency to date. A brief description of what makes VerusCoin special quoted from a community member-
"Verus has a unique and new consensus algorithm called Proof of Power which is a 50% PoW/50% PoS algorithm that solves theoretical weaknesses in other PoS systems (Nothing at Stake problem for example) and is provably immune to 51% hash attacks. With this, Verus uses the new hash algorithm, VerusHash 2.0. VerusHash 2.0 is designed to better equalize mining across all hardware platforms, while favoring the latest CPUs over older types, which is also one defense against the centralizing potential of botnets. Unlike past efforts to equalize hardware hash-rates across different hardware types, VerusHash 2.0 explicitly enables CPUs to gain even more power relative to GPUs and FPGAs, enabling the most decentralizing hardware, CPUs (due to their virtually complete market penetration), to stay relevant as miners for the indefinite future. As for anonymity, Verus is not a "forced private", allowing for both transparent and shielded (private) transactions...and private messages as well"
If other projects can learn from this and adopt a similar approach or continue to innovate with new ideas, it could mean an end to all the doom and gloom predictions that CPU and GPU mining are dead, offering a much needed reprieve and an alternative to miners who have been faced with the difficult decision of either pulling the plug and shutting down shop or breaking down their rigs to sell off parts and buy new, more expensive hardware…and in so doing present an overall unprecedented level of decentralization not yet seen in cryptocurrency.
Technological advancements led us to the world of secure digital currencies and the progress being made with hardware efficiencies is indisputably beneficial to us all. ASICs and FPGAs aren’t inherently bad, and there are ways in which they could be made more affordable and available for mass distribution. More than anything, it is important that we work together as communities to find solutions that can benefit us all for the long term.
In an ever changing world where it may be easy to lose sight of the real accomplishments that brought us to this point one thing is certain, cryptocurrency is here to stay and the projects that are doing something to solve the current problems in the proof of work consensus mechanism will be the ones that lead us toward our collective vision of a better world- not just for the world of crypto but for each and every one of us.
submitted by Godballz to EtherMining [link] [comments]

The Problem with PoW

The Problem with PoW

Miners have always had it rough..
"Frustrated Miners"


The Problem with PoW
(and what is being done to solve it)

Proof of Work (PoW) is one of the most commonly used consensus mechanisms entrusted to secure and validate many of today’s most successful cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin being one. Battle-hardened and having weathered the test of time, Bitcoin has demonstrated the undeniable strength and reliability of the PoW consensus model through sheer market saturation, and of course, its persistency.
In addition to the cost of powerful computing hardware, miners prove that they are benefiting the network by expending energy in the form of electricity, by solving and hashing away complex math problems on their computers, utilizing any suitable tools that they have at their disposal. The mathematics involved in securing proof of work revolve around unique algorithms, each with their own benefits and vulnerabilities, and can require different software/hardware to mine depending on the coin.
Because each block has a unique and entirely random hash, or “puzzle” to solve, the “work” has to be performed for each block individually and the difficulty of the problem can be increased as the speed at which blocks are solved increases.
Hashrates and Hardware Types
While proof of work is an effective means of securing a blockchain, it inherently promotes competition amongst miners seeking higher and higher hashrates due to the rewards earned by the node who wins the right to add the next block. In turn, these higher hash rates benefit the blockchain, providing better security when it’s a result of a well distributed/decentralized network of miners.
When Bitcoin first launched its genesis block, it was mined exclusively by CPUs. Over the years, various programmers and developers have devised newer, faster, and more energy efficient ways to generate higher hashrates; some by perfecting the software end of things, and others, when the incentives are great enough, create expensive specialized hardware such as ASICs (application-specific integrated circuit). With the express purpose of extracting every last bit of hashing power, efficiency being paramount, ASICs are stripped down, bare minimum, hardware representations of a specific coin’s algorithm.
This gives ASICS a massive advantage in terms of raw hashing power and also in terms of energy consumption against CPUs/GPUs, but with significant drawbacks of being very expensive to design/manufacture, translating to a high economic barrier for the casual miner. Due to the fact that they are virtual hardware representations of a single targeted algorithm, this means that if a project decides to fork and change algorithms suddenly, your powerful brand-new ASIC becomes a very expensive paperweight. The high costs in developing and manufacturing ASICs and the associated risks involved, make them unfit for mass adoption at this time.
Somewhere on the high end, in the vast hashrate expanse created between GPU and ASIC, sits the FPGA (field programmable gate array). FPGAs are basically ASICs that make some compromises with efficiency in order to have more flexibility, namely they are reprogrammable and often used in the “field” to test an algorithm before implementing it in an ASIC. As a precursor to the ASIC, FPGAs are somewhat similar to GPUs in their flexibility, but require advanced programming skills and, like ASICs, are expensive and still fairly uncommon.
2 Guys 1 ASIC
One of the issues with proof of work incentivizing the pursuit of higher hashrates is in how the network calculates block reward coinbase payouts and rewards miners based on the work that they have submitted. If a coin generated, say a block a minute, and this is a constant, then what happens if more miners jump on a network and do more work? The network cannot pay out more than 1 block reward per 1 minute, and so a difficulty mechanism is used to maintain balance. The difficulty will scale up and down in response to the overall nethash, so if many miners join the network, or extremely high hashing devices such as ASICs or FPGAs jump on, the network will respond accordingly, using the difficulty mechanism to make the problems harder, effectively giving an edge to hardware that can solve them faster, balancing the network. This not only maintains the block a minute reward but it has the added side-effect of energy requirements that scale up with network adoption.
Imagine, for example, if one miner gets on a network all alone with a CPU doing 50 MH/s and is getting all 100 coins that can possibly be paid out in a day. Then, if another miner jumps on the network with the same CPU, each miner would receive 50 coins in a day instead of 100 since they are splitting the required work evenly, despite the fact that the net electrical output has doubled along with the work. Electricity costs miner’s money and is a factor in driving up coin price along with adoption, and since more people are now mining, the coin is less centralized. Now let’s say a large corporation has found it profitable to manufacture an ASIC for this coin, knowing they will make their money back mining it or selling the units to professionals. They join the network doing 900 MH/s and will be pulling in 90 coins a day, while the two guys with their CPUs each get 5 now. Those two guys aren’t very happy, but the corporation is. Not only does this negatively affect the miners, it compromises the security of the entire network by centralizing the coin supply and hashrate, opening the doors to double spends and 51% attacks from potential malicious actors. Uncertainty of motives and questionable validity in a distributed ledger do not mix.
When technology advances in a field, it is usually applauded and welcomed with open arms, but in the world of crypto things can work quite differently. One of the glaring flaws in the current model and the advent of specialized hardware is that it’s never ending. Suppose the two men from the rather extreme example above took out a loan to get themselves that ASIC they heard about that can get them 90 coins a day? When they join the other ASIC on the network, the difficulty adjusts to keep daily payouts consistent at 100, and they will each receive only 33 coins instead of 90 since the reward is now being split three ways. Now what happens if a better ASIC is released by that corporation? Hopefully, those two guys were able to pay off their loans and sell their old ASICs before they became obsolete.
This system, as it stands now, only perpetuates a never ending hashrate arms race in which the weapons of choice are usually a combination of efficiency, economics, profitability and in some cases control.
Implications of Centralization
This brings us to another big concern with expensive specialized hardware: the risk of centralization. Because they are so expensive and inaccessible to the casual miner, ASICs and FPGAs predominantly remain limited to a select few. Centralization occurs when one small group or a single entity controls the vast majority hash power and, as a result, coin supply and is able to exert its influence to manipulate the market or in some cases, the network itself (usually the case of dishonest nodes or bad actors).
This is entirely antithetical of what cryptocurrency was born of, and since its inception many concerted efforts have been made to avoid centralization at all costs. An entity in control of a centralized coin would have the power to manipulate the price, and having a centralized hashrate would enable them to affect network usability, reliability, and even perform double spends leading to the demise of a coin, among other things.
The world of crypto is a strange new place, with rapidly growing advancements across many fields, economies, and boarders, leaving plenty of room for improvement; while it may feel like a never-ending game of catch up, there are many talented developers and programmers working around the clock to bring us all more sustainable solutions.
The Rise of FPGAs
With the recent implementation of the commonly used coding language C++, and due to their overall flexibility, FPGAs are becoming somewhat more common, especially in larger farms and in industrial setting; but they still remain primarily out of the hands of most mining enthusiasts and almost unheard of to the average hobby miner. Things appear to be changing though, one example of which I’ll discuss below, and it is thought by some, that soon we will see a day when mining with a CPU or GPU just won’t cut it any longer, and the market will be dominated by FPGAs and specialized ASICs, bringing with them efficiency gains for proof of work, while also carelessly leading us all towards the next round of spending.
A perfect real-world example of the effect specialized hardware has had on the crypto-community was recently discovered involving a fairly new project called VerusCoin and a fairly new, relatively more economically accessible FPGA. The FPGA is designed to target specific alt-coins whose algo’s do not require RAM overhead. It was discovered the company had released a new algorithm, kept secret from the public, which could effectively mine Verus at 20x the speed of GPUs, which were the next fastest hardware types mining on the Verus network.
Unfortunately this was done with a deliberately secret approach, calling the Verus algorithm “Algo1” and encouraging owners of the FPGA to never speak of the algorithm in public channels, admonishing a user when they did let the cat out of the bag. The problem with this business model is that it is parasitic in nature. In an ecosystem where advancements can benefit the entire crypto community, this sort of secret mining approach also does not support the philosophies set forth by the Bitcoin or subsequent open source and decentralization movements.
Although this was not done in the spirit of open source, it does hint to an important step in hardware innovation where we could see more efficient specialized systems within reach of the casual miner. The FPGA requires unique sets of data called a bitstream in order to be able to recognize each individual coin’s algorithm and mine them. Because it’s reprogrammable, with the support of a strong development team creating such bitstreams, the miner doesn’t end up with a brick if an algorithm changes.
All is not lost thanks to.. um.. Technology?
Shortly after discovering FPGAs on the network, the Verus developers quickly designed, tested, and implemented a new, much more complex and improved algorithm via a fork that enabled Verus to transition smoothly from VerusHash 1.0 to VerusHash 2.0 at block 310,000. Since the fork, VerusHash 2.0 has demonstrated doing exactly what it was designed for- equalizing hardware performance relative to the device being used while enabling CPUs (the most widely available “ASICs”) to mine side by side with GPUs, at a profit and it appears this will also apply to other specialized hardware. This is something no other project has been able to do until now. Rather than pursue the folly of so many other projects before it- attempting to be “ASIC proof”, Verus effectively achieved and presents to the world an entirely new model of “hardware homogeny”. As the late, great, Bruce Lee once said- “Don’t get set into one form, adapt it and build your own, and let it grow, be like water.”
In the design of VerusHash 2.0, Verus has shown it doesn’t resist progress like so many other new algorithms try to do, it embraces change and adapts to it in the way that water becomes whatever vessel it inhabits. This new approach- an industry first- could very well become an industry standard and in doing so, would usher in a new age for proof of work based coins. VerusHash 2.0 has the potential to correct the single largest design flaw in the proof of work consensus mechanism- the ever expanding monetary and energy requirements that have plagued PoW based projects since the inception of the consensus mechanism. Verus also solves another major issue of coin and net hash centralization by enabling legitimate CPU mining, offering greater coin and hashrate distribution.
Digging a bit deeper it turns out the Verus development team are no rookies. The lead developer Michael F Toutonghi has spent decades in the field programming and is a former Vice President and Technical Fellow at Microsoft, recognized founder and architect of Microsoft's .Net platform, ex-Technical Fellow of Microsoft's advertising platform, ex-CTO, Parallels Corporation, and an experienced distributed computing and machine learning architect. The project he helped create employs and makes use of a diverse myriad of technologies and security features to form one of the most advanced and secure cryptocurrency to date. A brief description of what makes VerusCoin special quoted from a community member-
"Verus has a unique and new consensus algorithm called Proof of Power which is a 50% PoW/50% PoS algorithm that solves theoretical weaknesses in other PoS systems (Nothing at Stake problem for example) and is provably immune to 51% hash attacks. With this, Verus uses the new hash algorithm, VerusHash 2.0. VerusHash 2.0 is designed to better equalize mining across all hardware platforms, while favoring the latest CPUs over older types, which is also one defense against the centralizing potential of botnets. Unlike past efforts to equalize hardware hash-rates across different hardware types, VerusHash 2.0 explicitly enables CPUs to gain even more power relative to GPUs and FPGAs, enabling the most decentralizing hardware, CPUs (due to their virtually complete market penetration), to stay relevant as miners for the indefinite future. As for anonymity, Verus is not a "forced private", allowing for both transparent and shielded (private) transactions...and private messages as well"
If other projects can learn from this and adopt a similar approach or continue to innovate with new ideas, it could mean an end to all the doom and gloom predictions that CPU and GPU mining are dead, offering a much needed reprieve and an alternative to miners who have been faced with the difficult decision of either pulling the plug and shutting down shop or breaking down their rigs to sell off parts and buy new, more expensive hardware…and in so doing present an overall unprecedented level of decentralization not yet seen in cryptocurrency.
Technological advancements led us to the world of secure digital currencies and the progress being made with hardware efficiencies is indisputably beneficial to us all. ASICs and FPGAs aren’t inherently bad, and there are ways in which they could be made more affordable and available for mass distribution. More than anything, it is important that we work together as communities to find solutions that can benefit us all for the long term.
In an ever changing world where it may be easy to lose sight of the real accomplishments that brought us to this point one thing is certain, cryptocurrency is here to stay and the projects that are doing something to solve the current problems in the proof of work consensus mechanism will be the ones that lead us toward our collective vision of a better world- not just for the world of crypto but for each and every one of us.
submitted by Godballz to gpumining [link] [comments]

Transcript of Open Developer Meeting In Discord - 5/10/2019

[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
Channel should be open now
Chill05/10/2019
you all rock!
just getting that out of the way :wink:
Tron05/10/2019
Cheers everyone.
theking05/10/2019
Hi fabulous dev team!
Hans_Schmidt05/10/2019
Howdy!
Tron05/10/2019
No specific agenda today.
Questions?
Has everyone seen Zelcore wallet, and Spend app?
theDopeMedic05/10/2019
Any major development status updates that haven't been listed in #news?
Synicide05/10/2019
How was the meetup yesterday? I heard it would be recorded, it is uploaded anywhere yet?
Tron05/10/2019
And Trezor support on Mango Farm assets?
@Synicide Yes it was recorded. The Bitcoin meetup organizer has the video.
I talked about Ravencoin, but mostly about the stuff that was being built on/with/for Ravencoin.
There was about 70% overlap with folks who were at the Ravencoin meetup in March.
Synicide05/10/2019
awesome, looking forward to watching it when it's available
Tron05/10/2019
I'll hit up James and see if he's posting the video.
S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org05/10/2019
@theDopeMedic I'd follow github if youre interested in development status
Synicide05/10/2019
zelcore looks super slick. Been meaning to research its security more with the username/pw being stored on device
Chill05/10/2019
How is the progress on the restricted assets and testnet coming along? A secondary question would be about the approximate fork timeframe.
S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org05/10/2019
Has anyone heard from the community dev (BW) working on Dividends?
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
Any word on BW and his progress w dividends?
@S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org LOL
Tron05/10/2019
@S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org Great question. I haven't heard.
Synicide05/10/2019
last meeting BlondFrogs said he would try to connect with BW as he was sick with the flu at the time. Maybe he has an update
S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org05/10/2019
I've tried to get in contact, but with no success.
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
Got a funny feeling...
Jeroz05/10/2019
Last time we left off with someone mentioning a foundation and Tron saying let’s discuss that next time iirc
kryptoshi05/10/2019
Has anyone taken a look at the merits for this proposal? Thoughts? https://medium.com/systems-nexus/modified-x16r-algorithm-proposal-for-constant-hash-rate-in-short-time-164711dd9044
Medium
Modified X16R algorithm proposal for constant hash rate in short time
Interpretation Lens V. a0.01
Tron05/10/2019
I did see it. Does anyone think this is a problem?
Synicide05/10/2019
It looks interesting... but I'm not sure what it is trying to solve. Looking at netstats, our 1 hour average block time is perfectly 1 minute
S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org05/10/2019
Last I heard from him he expressed how important finishing the code was. I wouldnt jump to conclusions on his absence within the community.
Synicide05/10/2019
x16r by nature will fluctuate, but DGW seems to be doing a good job keeping consistent block times
Tron05/10/2019
Because of relatively broad distribution across the algorithms, the block times are fairly consistent. It is possible, but very, very unlikely to get a sequence that takes up to 4x longer, but that's super rare, and only 4 minutes.
We did some timing analysis of the algorithms early on. A few are 1/2 as long as SHA-256 and some are up to 4x longer. But when you randomly select 16 it usually comes out about even.
Synicide05/10/2019
1hr avg: 1.02min - 24hr avg: 1min
I think we should focus on building, and not trying to fix what isnt necessarily broken
Tron05/10/2019
Agreed.
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
Agreed
Tron05/10/2019
Is everyone ok with the frequency (every other week) of this discussion?
Jeroz05/10/2019
(Added thumbs down to measure)
Tron05/10/2019
@Jeroz Did you do thumbs-up and thumbs down?
S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org05/10/2019
Seems appropriate. Its not like the devs dont poke around here and chat anyways.
Tron05/10/2019
Anything critical that we should be aware of?
Jeroz05/10/2019
When I need a dev, I poke a dev. When that dev is unavailable. I poke another one :smiley:
Hans_Schmidt05/10/2019
BlondFrogs was testing some github code last month to create a dividends snapshot database of asset holders at a given blockheight. Is that planned for inclusion? That's the only thing needed for dividends.
Jeroz05/10/2019
I hope I didn’t offend any devs
With poking around
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
Was thinking voting would be an excellent use case for restricted assets. Local communities, nations, etc... could kyc their residents
radiodub05/10/2019
Is x16r will remain fpga mineable
Tron05/10/2019
@Jeroz We're hard to offend.
Chill05/10/2019
Is the general dev feeling that the next fork should and will include everything needed for the next 6-9 months (barring something completely unforeseen)?
Jeroz05/10/2019
I know :smile:
Tron05/10/2019
@radiodub Nearly impossible to stop FPGAs and still keep GPUs
Jeroz05/10/2019
About that: voting is another hard fork right? Not too soon?
Tron05/10/2019
FPGAs can be reprogrammed as fast. It is silicon (true ASIC) that we can obsolete with a tiny change.
@Jeroz Messaging, voting, Tags, Restricted Assets would require a hard fork (upgrade).
We could do them each individually, but folks get weary of upgrades, so current plan is to roll them together into one.
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
Good idea
Jeroz05/10/2019
Oh voting too?
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
People will like that
Jeroz05/10/2019
I thought that was coming later
Tron05/10/2019
Voting is the one that isn't being worked on now. Tags and Restricted assets have taken precedence.
Jeroz05/10/2019
I know. But you plan on waiting to fork until voting is also done?
That would have my preference tbh
But I can see an issue with too many things at the same time
Tron05/10/2019
If someone wants to step in, we've had one of our devs sidelined and he was working on BlockBook support so more light wallets can connect to Ravencoin. Mostly test cases needed at this point.
S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org05/10/2019
Thats a pretty large upgrade.. Bigger surface for unknowns
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
At what point would RVN community consider moving to ASICs because having a Bitcoin level of security would eventually be needed?
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
Never rikki
Tron05/10/2019
@S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org 100% Lots of testing on testnet and bounties.
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
I am here :smiley:
Tron05/10/2019
@Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor There's nothing inherently wrong with ASICs but it tends to centralize to data centers and less opportunity for anyone to just run their gaming rig overnight and collect RVN.
Welcome Blondfrogs
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
Asics are too expensive. If we want normal people to mine, then we cant be an asic network
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
@Tron True but what happens when the chain needs a Bitcoin level of protection?
Tron05/10/2019
More GPUs, more FPGAs
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
Nvidia loves ravencoin :stuck_out_tongue:
Chill05/10/2019
ok, so we are pro FPGAs
𝕿𝖍𝖊 𝕯𝖔𝖓 𝕳𝖆𝖗𝖎𝖘𝖙𝖔 CEO ∞05/10/2019
Build it and they will come
Tron05/10/2019
It's all relative. It is cost to attack. If an ASIC isn't available for rent, then only option is rental of non-allocated GPUs
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
@Chill Eventually everyone will need FPGAs to be profitable on RVN, at that point I don't see why we just don't make the switch to ASICs
Tron05/10/2019
Also, as much as we don't focus on price, the price does matter because it determines the amount of electricity and hardware will be deployed to get the block reward. Price increase means more security, more mining means more security means higher price.
It's a circle.
Chill05/10/2019
someone tell that to the twitter handler
HailKira05/10/2019
you guys adding seedphrase to desktop wallet?
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
@HailKira We will, just is not a high priority right now.
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
Twitter handle wants rvn ded
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
I just don't see much difference between ASIC and FPGA and I'd rather have the added nethash an ASIC will provide once GPUs are virtually kicked off the network
kryptoshi05/10/2019
I'm at 11 GB future proof
Tron05/10/2019
That also limits miners to big money, not gaming rigs.
Synicide05/10/2019
@Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor you have to keep in mind the 'added nethash' is all relative
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
FPGAs will limit miners to big $$$ too IMO
Tron05/10/2019
@kryptoshi New algo x16r-12G requires 12GB :frowning:
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
But sperating smaller gb cards would lead to less adoption if we ever become a mainstream coin.
Adpotion of mining that is
Chill05/10/2019
but we are a mainstream coin
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
Mains stream as in what eth did
Tron05/10/2019
@Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor I agree. Not a perfect solution.
Steelers05/10/2019
Is this a Dev meeting or Algo meeting :smiley:
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
But if we ever go mem lane. We should aim for 6 or 8gb.
Tron05/10/2019
Open to other questions.
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
@Tron Probably not the time and the place to have this discussion as we stand currently but IMO we're gonna have this conversation for real eventually
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
Most cards have 6gb now.
kryptoshi05/10/2019
Why 12 gb ? Such a massive jump
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
^
Would also like to know
Tron05/10/2019
@kryptoshi I was joking. You said you had 11GB card.
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
Haha
You got em good
I cant imaghine the face he had when he was 1gb short
Lel
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
That's what she said
kryptoshi05/10/2019
Hahaha
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
need a 2080ti
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
How much does the VII have?
16?
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
Any other questions you have for us?
Hans_Schmidt05/10/2019
@[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs You were testing some github code last month to create a dividends snapshot database of asset holders at a given blockheight. Is that planned for inclusion? That's the only thing needed for dividends.
Chill05/10/2019
a dev might want to contact Crypto Chico for some 'splaining
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
I still haven't contacted the developer that was working on dividends. Was pretty busy with some other stuff. I will contact him this next week, and see where we are at for that.
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
Chico doesn't do interviews, shame. Tron would be a much needed interview for his community
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
As far as releasing dividends, I can be released at anytime the code is finished and doesn't require any voting or hardfork to occur
kryptoshi05/10/2019
Android asset aware wallet?
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
Is in beta right
Tron05/10/2019
Testing went well today on Android. Nearing release.
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
as it is a mechanism that is wallet specific
liqdmetal05/10/2019
no protocol level dividends you guys are saying?
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
correct
Tron05/10/2019
DM me if you want to test Android with Asset support. I'll send you the .APK.
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
RVN gonna be on tZero wallet? :yum:
liqdmetal05/10/2019
why not? what is the logic on non-protocol dividends
assets + protocol dividends is nirvana
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
dividends is pretty much sending payments to addresses. Right now, you would have to do this manually. The dividends code, will allow this to be done quicker and easier.
No consensus changes are required.
Tron05/10/2019
New Android wallet is BIP44 and original Android wallet is BIP32/BIP39 so the words will not find the funds. You'll need to send them to another wallet, and then send them to new BIP44 derived address.
liqdmetal05/10/2019
we already have payments to addresses
so dividends is not a feature so much as simple wallet script
Hans_Schmidt05/10/2019
@[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs The dividend code changes look risky'er to me than messaging. Would you consider "tags" branch test-ready?
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
Not yet @Hans_Schmidt
Dividends is easier then you would think if coded correctly. I still haven't seen the code from the community developer. Excited to view it though.
Hans_Schmidt05/10/2019
@[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs Sorry- I meant restricted, not dividend
kryptoshi05/10/2019
@Tron on the Android wallet, anyone successfully added their own node and got it to sync faster? Always have issues. I have a supped up node and cannot get it to work with the Android wallet...
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
@Hans_Schmidt Oh, that makes more sense. Yes, they are very risky! That is why we are going to create a new bug bounty program for restricted assets testing.
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
Once the network does get flooded w FPGAs, should we even consider changing the algo a couple times a year? That would only give bitstream developers added time to hoard their creations for themselves
Kind of like they're already doing with their x16r bitstreams :yum:
kryptoshi05/10/2019
Flooded... lol... like that hardware has mass production scale like gpus...come on dude
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
Bip44 wallet? :smiley:
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
@kryptoshi Eventually yes, where there's $$$ to be made, people make things happen
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
So can we trade from that in the new Binance Dex when RVN get listed?
kryptoshi05/10/2019
@Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor Yes Soon TM lol. :soontm:
Tron05/10/2019
@kryptoshi There are some things we can do to speed it up. For a new wallet, it shouldn't need to sync. For recovered wallet, it needs to sync from beginning of BIP44 wallet support on iOS so words can be moved between the two.
Other options include grabbing the first derived address and looking it up on an explorer to see when it was first used and sync from there.
Another option is to add an optional number with the 12 words so it knows when to start syncing.
There isn't a good reason on an SPV wallet to sync before the seed was created.
kryptoshi05/10/2019
Cool. Glad you are looking at speedup options.. :right_facing_fist: :left_facing_fist:
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
@MrFanelli™ If the binance dex support RVN deposits. I am sure you would be able to send from it
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
Has binance reached out for any info or anything?
I seen that we ranked in some voting competition they had on twitter
for an ama
Rikki RATTOE Sr. SEC Impresantor05/10/2019
I believe we'll need to create a fund of approximately $300,000 in order to get a BNB-RVN asset created and listed on the Binance FDEX
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
In order to work with binance we need Ravencoin integrated into Blockbook.
Tron05/10/2019
@MrFanelli™ I've reached back out to Binance on the AMA.
MrFanelli™05/10/2019
Awesome :smile:
kryptoshi05/10/2019
@Tron you are a natural on the interviews... cool as a cucumber. :sunglasses:
Tron05/10/2019
Thanks @kryptoshi
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
Cool. We are done for today.
Please don't ask us any more questions :smiley:
Tron05/10/2019
Thanks everyone!!!!
[Dev-Happy] Blondfrogs05/10/2019
Cya everyone!!
S1LVA | GetRavencoin.org05/10/2019
Cya happy feet, Thanks
Thanks Tron
Seal <:cricat:> Clubber05/10/2019
:bepbep:
submitted by mrderrik to Ravencoin [link] [comments]

[PoW|Hash] SquashPoW - ASIC Resistant, Assymetric Hash

Discussions in ProgPoW, Ethash and RandomX resulted in one agreement. Memory-intensity (mainly bus-intensity) can be used to achieve or increase the resistance against ASICs, to bring back mining to the average Joe and re-distribute mining.
Meanwhile, a new algorithm called rainforest started being used in new coins such as MicroBitcoin. While the developer of said algorithm seems to be confident that their algorithm is expensive for ASICs and FPGAs to implement, issues have been found in the code, which resulted in (closed-source) GPU miners running at 1000x the original speed and FPGA-Vendors listing this algorithm as one of the coins possible to mine.
Using the research done for the rainforest algorithm, a brand new hash called "Squash" has been created. It has similar properties to rainforest, meaning that it still utilizes "expensive" functions, but also speeds very close to blake2 (5.5 to 4 cycles per byte, depending on the architecture).
To also have shared properties with Ethash and ProgPoW, a variant called SquashPoW has been designed. It uses the same interior design. This supposedly results in expensive ASICs with low potential gain and more importantly - asymmetry. Asymmetry allows developers or "coins" to force a miner to run on a relatively large scratchpad while a verifier can run on significantly less resources and therefore still inherit the ability to properly validate incoming blocks. More on that in the ethash design rationale.
Now, whats new in SquashPoW?
In case you are now interested in testing out SquashPoW, I highly recommend checkout out the source code which can be seen at the official GitHub Repository.
Please note, SquashPoW is merely a variation of the concepts of Ethash. If you enjoy this hash, please show the original some love.
Please also note, that this is merely a post to spread awareness.
EDIT: A reference implementation can be found here
submitted by Luke_ClashProject to CryptoNoteTech [link] [comments]

The Problem with PoW

"Frustrated Miners"

The Problem with PoW
(and what is being done to solve it)

Proof of Work (PoW) is one of the most commonly used consensus mechanisms entrusted to secure and validate many of today’s most successful cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin being one. Battle-hardened and having weathered the test of time, Bitcoin has demonstrated the undeniable strength and reliability of the PoW consensus model through sheer market saturation, and of course, its persistency.
In addition to the cost of powerful computing hardware, miners prove that they are benefiting the network by expending energy in the form of electricity, by solving and hashing away complex math problems on their computers, utilizing any suitable tools that they have at their disposal. The mathematics involved in securing proof of work revolve around unique algorithms, each with their own benefits and vulnerabilities, and can require different software/hardware to mine depending on the coin.
Because each block has a unique and entirely random hash, or “puzzle” to solve, the “work” has to be performed for each block individually and the difficulty of the problem can be increased as the speed at which blocks are solved increases.

Hashrates and Hardware Types

While proof of work is an effective means of securing a blockchain, it inherently promotes competition amongst miners seeking higher and higher hashrates due to the rewards earned by the node who wins the right to add the next block. In turn, these higher hash rates benefit the blockchain, providing better security when it’s a result of a well distributed/decentralized network of miners.
When Bitcoin first launched its genesis block, it was mined exclusively by CPUs. Over the years, various programmers and developers have devised newer, faster, and more energy efficient ways to generate higher hashrates; some by perfecting the software end of things, and others, when the incentives are great enough, create expensive specialized hardware such as ASICs (application-specific integrated circuit). With the express purpose of extracting every last bit of hashing power, efficiency being paramount, ASICs are stripped down, bare minimum, hardware representations of a specific coin’s algorithm.
This gives ASICS a massive advantage in terms of raw hashing power and also in terms of energy consumption against CPUs/GPUs, but with significant drawbacks of being very expensive to design/manufacture, translating to a high economic barrier for the casual miner. Due to the fact that they are virtual hardware representations of a single targeted algorithm, this means that if a project decides to fork and change algorithms suddenly, your powerful brand-new ASIC becomes a very expensive paperweight. The high costs in developing and manufacturing ASICs and the associated risks involved, make them unfit for mass adoption at this time.
Somewhere on the high end, in the vast hashrate expanse created between GPU and ASIC, sits the FPGA (field programmable gate array). FPGAs are basically ASICs that make some compromises with efficiency in order to have more flexibility, namely they are reprogrammable and often used in the “field” to test an algorithm before implementing it in an ASIC. As a precursor to the ASIC, FPGAs are somewhat similar to GPUs in their flexibility, but require advanced programming skills and, like ASICs, are expensive and still fairly uncommon.

2 Guys 1 ASIC

One of the issues with proof of work incentivizing the pursuit of higher hashrates is in how the network calculates block reward coinbase payouts and rewards miners based on the work that they have submitted. If a coin generated, say a block a minute, and this is a constant, then what happens if more miners jump on a network and do more work? The network cannot pay out more than 1 block reward per 1 minute, and so a difficulty mechanism is used to maintain balance. The difficulty will scale up and down in response to the overall nethash, so if many miners join the network, or extremely high hashing devices such as ASICs or FPGAs jump on, the network will respond accordingly, using the difficulty mechanism to make the problems harder, effectively giving an edge to hardware that can solve them faster, balancing the network. This not only maintains the block a minute reward but it has the added side-effect of energy requirements that scale up with network adoption.
Imagine, for example, if one miner gets on a network all alone with a CPU doing 50 MH/s and is getting all 100 coins that can possibly be paid out in a day. Then, if another miner jumps on the network with the same CPU, each miner would receive 50 coins in a day instead of 100 since they are splitting the required work evenly, despite the fact that the net electrical output has doubled along with the work. Electricity costs miner’s money and is a factor in driving up coin price along with adoption, and since more people are now mining, the coin is less centralized. Now let’s say a large corporation has found it profitable to manufacture an ASIC for this coin, knowing they will make their money back mining it or selling the units to professionals. They join the network doing 900 MH/s and will be pulling in 90 coins a day, while the two guys with their CPUs each get 5 now. Those two guys aren’t very happy, but the corporation is. Not only does this negatively affect the miners, it compromises the security of the entire network by centralizing the coin supply and hashrate, opening the doors to double spends and 51% attacks from potential malicious actors. Uncertainty of motives and questionable validity in a distributed ledger do not mix.
When technology advances in a field, it is usually applauded and welcomed with open arms, but in the world of crypto things can work quite differently. One of the glaring flaws in the current model and the advent of specialized hardware is that it’s never ending. Suppose the two men from the rather extreme example above took out a loan to get themselves that ASIC they heard about that can get them 90 coins a day? When they join the other ASIC on the network, the difficulty adjusts to keep daily payouts consistent at 100, and they will each receive only 33 coins instead of 90 since the reward is now being split three ways. Now what happens if a better ASIC is released by that corporation? Hopefully, those two guys were able to pay off their loans and sell their old ASICs before they became obsolete.
This system, as it stands now, only perpetuates a never ending hashrate arms race in which the weapons of choice are usually a combination of efficiency, economics, profitability and in some cases control.

Implications of Centralization

This brings us to another big concern with expensive specialized hardware: the risk of centralization. Because they are so expensive and inaccessible to the casual miner, ASICs and FPGAs predominantly remain limited to a select few. Centralization occurs when one small group or a single entity controls the vast majority hash power and, as a result, coin supply and is able to exert its influence to manipulate the market or in some cases, the network itself (usually the case of dishonest nodes or bad actors).
This is entirely antithetical of what cryptocurrency was born of, and since its inception many concerted efforts have been made to avoid centralization at all costs. An entity in control of a centralized coin would have the power to manipulate the price, and having a centralized hashrate would enable them to affect network usability, reliability, and even perform double spends leading to the demise of a coin, among other things.
The world of crypto is a strange new place, with rapidly growing advancements across many fields, economies, and boarders, leaving plenty of room for improvement; while it may feel like a never-ending game of catch up, there are many talented developers and programmers working around the clock to bring us all more sustainable solutions.

The Rise of FPGAs

With the recent implementation of the commonly used coding language C++, and due to their overall flexibility, FPGAs are becoming somewhat more common, especially in larger farms and in industrial setting; but they still remain primarily out of the hands of most mining enthusiasts and almost unheard of to the average hobby miner. Things appear to be changing though, one example of which I’ll discuss below, and it is thought by some, that soon we will see a day when mining with a CPU or GPU just won’t cut it any longer, and the market will be dominated by FPGAs and specialized ASICs, bringing with them efficiency gains for proof of work, while also carelessly leading us all towards the next round of spending.
A perfect real-world example of the effect specialized hardware has had on the crypto-community was recently discovered involving a fairly new project called Verus Coin (https://veruscoin.io/) and a fairly new, relatively more economically accessible FPGA. The FPGA is designed to target specific alt-coins whose algo’s do not require RAM overhead. It was discovered the company had released a new algorithm, kept secret from the public, which could effectively mine Verus at 20x the speed of GPUs, which were the next fastest hardware types mining on the Verus network.
Unfortunately this was done with a deliberately secret approach, calling the Verus algorithm “Algo1” and encouraging owners of the FPGA to never speak of the algorithm in public channels, admonishing a user when they did let the cat out of the bag. The problem with this business model is that it is parasitic in nature. In an ecosystem where advancements can benefit the entire crypto community, this sort of secret mining approach also does not support the philosophies set forth by the Bitcoin or subsequent open source and decentralization movements.
Although this was not done in the spirit of open source, it does hint to an important step in hardware innovation where we could see more efficient specialized systems within reach of the casual miner. The FPGA requires unique sets of data called a bitstream in order to be able to recognize each individual coin’s algorithm and mine them. Because it’s reprogrammable, with the support of a strong development team creating such bitstreams, the miner doesn’t end up with a brick if an algorithm changes.

All is not lost thanks to.. um.. Technology?

Shortly after discovering FPGAs on the network, the Verus developers quickly designed, tested, and implemented a new, much more complex and improved algorithm via a fork that enabled Verus to transition smoothly from VerusHash 1.0 to VerusHash 2.0 at block 310,000. Since the fork, VerusHash 2.0 has demonstrated doing exactly what it was designed for- equalizing hardware performance relative to the device being used while enabling CPUs (the most widely available “ASICs”) to mine side by side with GPUs, at a profit and it appears this will also apply to other specialized hardware. This is something no other project has been able to do until now. Rather than pursue the folly of so many other projects before it- attempting to be “ASIC proof”, Verus effectively achieved and presents to the world an entirely new model of “hardware homogeny”. As the late, great, Bruce Lee once said- “Don’t get set into one form, adapt it and build your own, and let it grow, be like water.”
In the design of VerusHash 2.0, Verus has shown it doesn’t resist progress like so many other new algorithms try to do, it embraces change and adapts to it in the way that water becomes whatever vessel it inhabits. This new approach- an industry first- could very well become an industry standard and in doing so, would usher in a new age for proof of work based coins. VerusHash 2.0 has the potential to correct the single largest design flaw in the proof of work consensus mechanism- the ever expanding monetary and energy requirements that have plagued PoW based projects since the inception of the consensus mechanism. Verus also solves another major issue of coin and net hash centralization by enabling legitimate CPU mining, offering greater coin and hashrate distribution.
Digging a bit deeper it turns out the Verus development team are no rookies. The lead developer Michael F Toutonghi has spent decades in the field programming and is a former Vice President and Technical Fellow at Microsoft, recognized founder and architect of Microsoft's .Net platform, ex-Technical Fellow of Microsoft's advertising platform, ex-CTO, Parallels Corporation, and an experienced distributed computing and machine learning architect. The project he helped create employs and makes use of a diverse myriad of technologies and security features to form one of the most advanced and secure cryptocurrency to date. A brief description of what makes VerusCoin special quoted from a community member-
"Verus has a unique and new consensus algorithm called Proof of Power which is a 50% PoW/50% PoS algorithm that solves theoretical weaknesses in other PoS systems (Nothing at Stake problem for example) and is provably immune to 51% hash attacks. With this, Verus uses the new hash algorithm, VerusHash 2.0. VerusHash 2.0 is designed to better equalize mining across all hardware platforms, while favoring the latest CPUs over older types, which is also one defense against the centralizing potential of botnets. Unlike past efforts to equalize hardware hash-rates across different hardware types, VerusHash 2.0 explicitly enables CPUs to gain even more power relative to GPUs and FPGAs, enabling the most decentralizing hardware, CPUs (due to their virtually complete market penetration), to stay relevant as miners for the indefinite future. As for anonymity, Verus is not a "forced private", allowing for both transparent and shielded (private) transactions...and private messages as well"

If other projects can learn from this and adopt a similar approach or continue to innovate with new ideas, it could mean an end to all the doom and gloom predictions that CPU and GPU mining are dead, offering a much needed reprieve and an alternative to miners who have been faced with the difficult decision of either pulling the plug and shutting down shop or breaking down their rigs to sell off parts and buy new, more expensive hardware…and in so doing present an overall unprecedented level of decentralization not yet seen in cryptocurrency.
Technological advancements led us to the world of secure digital currencies and the progress being made with hardware efficiencies is indisputably beneficial to us all. ASICs and FPGAs aren’t inherently bad, and there are ways in which they could be made more affordable and available for mass distribution. More than anything, it is important that we work together as communities to find solutions that can benefit us all for the long term.

In an ever changing world where it may be easy to lose sight of the real accomplishments that brought us to this point one thing is certain, cryptocurrency is here to stay and the projects that are doing something to solve the current problems in the proof of work consensus mechanism will be the ones that lead us toward our collective vision of a better world- not just for the world of crypto but for each and every one of us.
submitted by Godballz to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

DIY FPGA  Installing and Configuring the KU115 for Crypto ... T4D #84 - Pt 2 Bitcoin Mining, BFL ASIC vs FPGA vs GPU vs CPU Bitcoin Mining with FPGAs (EC551 Final Project) ELE 432- FPGA Bitcoin Miner is mining still profitable, how to air cool FPGA BCU-1525 ??

USB Bitcoin mining was only profitable when Bitcoin was in its early years. If you just want bitcoins then invest in serious mining hardware or just buy bitcoins. Halong Mining . The world of crypto was in disbelief when Halong Mining, a new ASIC startup, announced their brand new Dragonmint T16. Halong claimed it to be the most powerful – and efficient – Bitcoin mining ASIC on the market ... FPGA Bitcoin Mining. At the foundation of block creation and mining is the calculation of this digital signature. Different cryptocurrencies use different approaches to generate the signature. For the most popular cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, the signature is calculated using a cryptographic hashing function. For those unfamiliar with cryptographic hashes, hashes calculate a fixed-length unique ... A large variety of device drivers for Bitcoin (SHA256d): ASICMINER Block Erupter blades, cubes, USB miners (Emerald and Sapphire), and Tube BFx2 Bitfury USB miner Bi•Fury Big Picture Mining Bitfury-based USB miners (BF1, RedFury, BlueFury) BitCentury LittleFury USB miners Bitmain AntMiner S1 – S4 and S5 Bitmain AntMiner U1 – U3 BlackArrow Prospero X-1.5 BTCFPGA’s ModMiner Quad FPGA ... The X6500 is designed to be a flexible, extendable device. It is sold bare, without an enclosure or accessories. We believe that designing the best mining device that suits everyone is impossible, so we want you to decide exactly how to set it up. Some people will want to enclose it in a nice looking box and set it in the living room as a conversation piece, with low noise being very important ... This is the first open source FPGA Bitcoin miner. It was released on May 20, 2011. Contents. 1 Software needed; 2 Compiling. 2.1 Altera; 2.2 Changing the clock speed; 3 Programming the FPGA. 3.1 Altera; 3.2 Using urjtag; 4 Mining. 4.1 Altera; 5 See Also; 6 External Links; 7 Source; Software needed . Currently programming and running the FPGAminer code' requires Quartus II for Altera devices ...

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DIY FPGA Installing and Configuring the KU115 for Crypto ...

To download and view our complete article go here: https://www.freelearner.how/2018/08/17/diy-fpga-miner-keccak-fpga-miner/ This is the video showing the final project of EC551 in Spring semester,2015. This project, Bitcoin mining, is done by group "Bitminers". The group members a... IN STOCK! AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE NOW @ http://ModMinerQuadStore.com Introducing the ModMiner Quad Bitcoin Mining Device. This next generation Bitcoin Mining ... In this video I take a look at Bitcoin mining hardware. I compare the performance and power usage between BFL SC ASIC vs FPGA vs GPU (Nvideo GTX 560 Ti and AMD ATI Radeon HD 8950) vs CPU (Intel ... ELE 432- FPGA Bitcoin Miner - Duration: 4:08. Burak 14,472 views. 4:08 . 8 x Xilinx VCU1525 FPGA Crypto-Mining Rig Demo - Duration: 8:35. Zetheron Technology 45,200 views. 8:35. Is Mining on ASICs ...

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